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dataflow chip (1.24 CMOS technology) has 4 MB of memory and 40 MB/s communication capability (total) through four bi-directional ports. The 64 processors are arranged in a torus and the complete unit has two 1280x1024 24-bit frame buffers. Interestingly, Sanyo also produces a line of PC products including a 20-MHz, 386-based notebook. (Note that there are very few Japanese electronics consumer product companies that are not really computer companies, e.g., Sony had a large display of tape storage devices, etc.)

PARALLEL COMPUTING

For the most part Japanese companies are behind those in the United States in parallel computing hardware and Japan is far behind in software and tools development for parallel machines. There are very few general purpose parallel machines and those that exist are all pre-commercial. Until university researchers can easily access parallel machines, there is little likelihood of them producing significant quantities of software tools research, save for some simulation. There are a reasonable number of special purpose parallel machines, and I have mentioned some of these above. Several of these machines implement uniquely Japanese ideas, but there is only a small chance that these systems will get to the United States in the near future. (The Japanese companies are conservative about jumping into the marketing of parallel processing hardware; perhaps they see these as taking sales away from existing products.) I think that it would be extremely useful to give U.S. scientists an opportunity to try these machines in a substantial way. For Fujitsu, good access could be provided at the Australian National University in Canberra. Others would have to be arranged through the vendors or the Japanese universities where they are being installed.

Appendix

SPECIFICATIONS FOR HITACHI'S NEW VECTOR SUPERCOMPUTERS

HITAC S-3800

Model 160

Maximum performance (GFLOPS)
No. of scalar units
No. of vector units
Instruction processor

No. of vector instructions
Buffer memory (KB)
No. of add+mult pipes
No. of div pipes
No. of mask pipes
No. of load pipes

No. of load/store pipes
Main storage

MB

Error check
Extended storage

Maximum (GB)
Maximum transfer (GB/s)

Error check
I/O Processor

Cooling Facilities

Model 180

Maximum performance (GFLOPS)
No. of scalar units
No. of vector units
Instruction processor

No. of vector instructions
Buffer memory (KB)
No. of add+mult pipes
No. of div pipes
No. of mask pipes
No. of load pipes

No. of load/store pipes
Main storage

MB

Error check
Extended storage

Maximum (GB)
Maximum transfer (GB/s)
Error check

4 1 1

99
256
4
1
1
2
2

256/512/1024
1 bit correction, 2 bits detection

16
2 or 4
2 bits correction
0-64/128 optical channels; 32-64/128 metal channels; total channel
throughput: max 1.1 GB/s; BLMPX and BYMPX channels
water
Video output (NTSC and HDTV), HIPPI

8
1
1

99
256
8
1
1
4
4

512/1024
1 bit correction, 2 bits detection

16
2 or 4
2 bits correction

I/O Processor

0-64/128 optical channels; 32-64/128 metal channels; total channel throughput: max 1.1 GB/s; BLMPX and BYMPX channels water Video output (NTSC and HDTV), HIPPI

Cooling Facilities

Model 182

8 2 1

Maximum performance (GFLOPS)
No. of scalar units
No. of vector units
Instruction processor

No. of vector instructions
Buffer memory (KB)
No. of add+mult pipes
No. of div pipes
No. of mask pipes
No. of load pipes

No. of load/store pipes
Main storage

MB

Error check
Extended storage

Maximum (GB)
Maximum transfer (GB/s)

Error check
I/O Processor

99 256x2 8 1 1 4 4

512/1024 1 bit correction, 2 bits detection

16 2 or 4 2 bits correction 0-64/128 optical channels; 32-64/128 metal channels; total channel throughput: max 1.1 GB/s; BLMPX and BYMPX channels water Video output (NTSC and HDTV), HIPPI

Cooling Facilities

Model 260

8 2 2

Maximum performance (GFLOPS)
No. of scalar units
No. of vector units
Instruction processor

No. of vector instructions
Buffer memory (KB)
No. of add+mult pipes
No. of div pipes
No. of mask pipes
No. of load pipes

No. of load/store pipes
Main storage

MB

Error check
Extended storage

Maximum (GB)
Maximum transfer (GB/s)
Error check

99 256x2 8 2 2 4 4

512/1024 1 bit correction, 2 bits detection

32 2 or 4 2 bits correction

I/O Processor

0-64/128 optical channels; 32-64/128 metal channels; total channel throughput: max 1.1 GB/s; BLMPX and BYMPX channels water Video output (NTSC and HDTV), HIPPI

Cooling Facilities

Model 280

Maximum performance (GFLOPS)
No. of scalar units
No. of vector units
Instruction processor

No. of vector instructions
Buffer memory (KB)
No. of add+mult pipes
No. of div pipes
No. of mask pipes
No. of load pipes

No. of load/store pipes
Main storage

MB

Error check
Extended storage

Maximum (GB)
Maximum transfer (GB/s)

Error check
I/O Processor

Cooling Facilities

Model 480

Maximum performance (GFLOPS)
No. of scalar units
No. of vector units
Instruction processor

No. of vector instructions
Buffer memory (KB)
No. of add+mult pipes
No. of div pipes
No. of mask pipes
No. of load pipes

No. of load/store pipes
Main storage

MB

Error check
Extended storage

Maximum (GB)
Maximum transfer (GB/s)
Error check

16 2 2

99
256x2
16
2
2
8
8

102412048
1 bit correction, 2 bits detection

32
2 or 4
2 bits correction
0-64/128 optical channels; 32-64/128 metal channels; total channel
throughput: max 1.1 GB/s; BLMPX and BYMPX channels
water
Video output (NTSC and HDTV), HIPPI

32 4 4

99
256x4
32
4
4
16
16

10242048
1 bit correction, 2 bits detection

32
2 or 4
2 bits correction

I/O Processor

Cooling Facilities

The technologies of S-3800:

Logic LSI: Vector register: Memory LSI:

25k gates, delay 60 ps and 12k gates, delay 70 ps 9k gates + 18 kbit memory 11k gates + 256 kbits and 2k gates + 64 kbits

Two kinds of operating systems:

HI-OSF/1-MJ (Unix) and VOS3/AS (MVS-like)

HITAC S-3600

Model 120

Maximum performance (GFLOPS)
No. of scalar units
No. of vector units
Instruction processor

No. of vector instructions
Buffer storage (KB)
No. of add pipes
No. of add+mult pipes
No. of div pipes
No. of mask pipes
No. of load pipes

No. of load/store pipes
Main storage

MB

Error check
Extended storage

Maximum (GB)
Maximum transfer (GB/s)

Error check
VO Processor

Cooling Facilities

Model 140

Maximum performance (GFLOPS)
No. of scalar units
No. of vector units

0-64/128 optical channels; 32-64/128 metal channels; total channel
throughput: max 1.1 GB/s; BLMPX and BYMPX channels
water
Video output (NTSC and HDTV), HIPPI

0.25
1
1

90
256
1
1
1
1
0
1

128/256
1 bit correction, 2 bits detection

6
1 or 2
2 bits correction
0-64 optical channels; 26-64 metal channels; total channel
throughput: max 288 MB/s
air
Video (NTSC), HIPPI

0.5
1
1

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