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ERATO and Japan's Dreams of Future Technology

Victor Rehn

The 10-year-old ERATO program is one of Japan's most innovative programs for
moving the frontiers of science toward advanced technology.

Manufacturing Science

State of the Art in Japanese Computer-Aided Design Methodologies

for Mechanical Products: Reports on Individual Visits to Companies and Universities

Daniel E. Whitney

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This is an appendix to an earlier summary report published in the first issue of 1992
on the Japanese use of computers in design of mechanical products. Detailed
information on the author's visits to companies and universities is presented.

Materials Science


Assessment of Carbon-Carbon Composite Research in the Far East

Robert A. Meyer

The current status of carbon-carbon composite research is assessed and future
directions of foreign research efforts are estimated.

Ocean Science and Engineering


First Workshop on the Yellow Sea Experiment (YESEX-1)

Pat Wilde

The Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI) has proposed
the Yellow Sea become an international full-size test laboratory as an outgrowth
of the Korean program of real-time coastal monitoring and prediction initiated in
1991. To test the feasibility of this concept and to bring together workers and
knowledge about the Yellow Sea, KORDI sponsored YESEX-1.


Superconducting Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion -
A Worldwide Research Effort

Thomas F. Lin


This article summarizes observations and opinions of many of the participants of
MHDS'91, the International Symposium on Superconducting Magnetohydrody-
namic Ship Propulsion. The most significant development is the near-completion
of the MHD experimental ship YAMATO-1.


Synchrotron-Radiation Research in Japan: Preparation for SPring-8

Victor Rehn


SPring-8, a huge, 8-GeV storage ring and associated synchrotron-radiation
facilities, is scheduled for commissioning on 1 April 1998. This facility is described,
and the Third International Synchrotron-Radiation Symposium is reviewed.

Cover: A bird's eye view of the Spring-8 facility, which will be Japan's newest and largest synchrotronradiation facility. Groundbreaking took place in November 1991 in Harima Science Garden City, located in the mountains west of Kyoto. For more information on SPring-8, see Victor Rehn's article on page 243. Photo courtesy of the JAERI-RIKEN SPring-8 Project Team, Yukio Sato, Deputy Director General.


Scientific Information Briefs


Although some South Korean and cryptographic products is still undevel

Taiwanese cryptologists have been oped compared to those in Europe or The Asiacrypt '91 conference was attending Crypto and Eurocrypt meet- North America. Fewer products are held in Fujiyoshida, Japan, at the footings for years, and have occasionally available, and market demand is small of Mt. Fuji, from 11-14 November 1991. contributed papers to those conferences, so far. There are some sophisticated It was cosponsored by the International the recent rapid growth of interest in products, especially from con Association for Cryptologic Research cryptology in their home countries is such as NEC and NTT, which have (IACR) and the Institute of Electron- not well known. Some of the Korean been involved in cryptologic research ics, Information, and Communication meetings have attracted more than 100 and development (R&D) work for a Engineers (IEICE, a Japanese engi- participants, but it appears that these long time. However, sales do not appear neering society similar to the Institute were more instructional meetings than to be substantial yet. The companies of Electrical and Electronics Engineers research conferences. Participants from demonstrating their products included (IEEE)) and was devoted to the pre- Taiwan and South Korea attributed most of the large integrated electronics sentation of the latest research results the considerably greater level of active companies, and they appear to be in cryptology. It attracted about 190 ity in Korea to the support that country's committed to work in this area, as can participants, roughly 120 from Japan government has given to cryptology be seen by the number of people they and the others from over a dozen work.

have working in it. There were no small countries.

There has been substantial unclas- companies represented that are so The technical program consisted of sified work on cryptography in China common in Europe and North America, 4 invited lectures and 39 contributed in the last 10 years. Many cryptologists consisting of a few people, and often ones. The proceedings will be published from that country have attended Western started by a college professor. On the in 1992 by Springer in their Lecture conferences and visited European and other hand, there were presentations Notes in Computer Science series under American universities. Their work was by some companies that in the West the title "Advances in Cryptology well represented among the papers would not have been expected to engage ASIACRYPT'91." The editors will be accepted for the Asiacrypt '91 program, in sophisticated R&D.--Andrew Odlyzko, the two program cochairmen, H. Imai but unfortunately because of visa and AT&T Bell Laboratories of Yokohama National University financial difficulties few of the authors (

and were able to attend, and most of their R. Rivest of the Massachusetts lectures were canceled. There does not Institute of Technology (MIT) seem to be any survey of cryptologic JAPAN'S PROGRESS ON THE (

research in China similar to that of INTEGRATED SERVICES The lectures covered all aspects of Prof. Moon for Korea and Taiwan. DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN) modern cryptology, although there was Some of the Japanese work in crypheavier representation than at some of tology is well known in the United States, Broad-band ISDN, high speed other recent meetings on cryptanalysis since Japanese scientists have frequently communication, is coming to Japan. and construction of classical private attended meetings in the West, have companies are preparing products for key cryptosystems.

presented papers, and have published the time when, not if, this will be Sang-Jae Moon of Kyung Pook in English language journals. However, widely available. The actual date this National University in Korea presented the full extent of this work is not reaches large numbers of Japan suban invited lecture titled "Research appreciated.

scribers is less important than the sense Activities on Cryptology in Korea." This There were demonstrations of cryp- that it is moving inexorably forward. lecture turned out to be a survey of tographic products at Asiacrypt '91, (Now there are digital telephone boxes cryptologic activities in South Korea, both hardware and software. It appears popping up in Tokyo, at least, with Taiwan, and to some extent Japan. that the civilian market in Japan for

that the civilian market in Japan for ISDN plugs for computer, fax, etc.) NTT is the major agent, and its monthly Although ISDN is still in the fledgling 20 W to 0.8 W. The NTT system also NTT Review is full of articles about stage, Japanese industry is busy pre- involves an optical switching system applications.

paring for the second-generation based on VSTEP (vertical-to-surfaceThe current narrow-band integrated B-ISDN, which is up to 2,000 times transmission electrophotonic device) services digital network (N-ISDN) went faster than the existing ISDN. In 1990, technology, developed by them. The into operation in Japan in April 1988 the International Telegraph and Tele- prototype switching system includes a with the implementation of NTT'S INS phone Consultative Committee superhigh-speed 4x4 (four inputs, four Net-64, which has a 64-kbit/s transmis- (CCITT) introduced formal guidelines outputs) cell-fluting circuit that makes sion capability. In June 1989 NTT intro- for B-ISDN. The Japanese telecommu- it possible to switch optical signals duced INS Net-1500, with a much higher nications provider, NTT, plans to have without converting them to electrical speed of 1.5 Mbit/s. INS Net-1500 allows B-ISDN operational for commercial

B-ISDN operational for commercial signals and an optical buffer memory multimedia communication, including users in 1996 with three distinct features: that holds input signals until they are teleconferencing, and it is possible to ATM net, optical-fiber communication, placed on the output lines. NTT's expertransmit a document page via fax in and “opticalization” of components.

and "opticalization" of components. iments, said to be the first of their kind, only 3 seconds. INS Net started with 29 The new technologies will begin to verified the feasibility of high-speed users and 114 subscriber lines. Total replace the existing ISDN infrastruc- optical throughput switching, required INS Net-64/1500 subscriber lines have ture around the year 2000 and is planned to achieve 1-Tbit/s ATM switching for now passed the 60,000 mark. NTT claims to be completed by 2015. It is claimed B-ISDN. In the area of standardizathat the number of ISDN circuits con- that optical fiber will reach cost parity tion, NTT has developed a B-ISDN tracted for is expected to have reached with copper by 1995.

quality standardization system called 80,000 by April 1992, including about New 10-Gbit/s transmitting and “SQUARE" (Subjective QUality 2,000 areas in Japan.

receiving equipment is being developed Assessment REference system) capaWith a maximum transmission speed by Toshiba for commercial availability ble of measuring and standardizing both of 1.5 Mbit/s, N-ISDN service is limited in 1996. This equipment will use one sound and video quality through simuto the transmission of voice, low- and optical fiber to carry 120K telephone lation. NTT is seeking to establish medium-speed data, still pictures, and lines simultaneously up to 80 km. It SQUARE as an international standard simple moving images. Broad-band will feature several gallium arsenide for B-ISDN quality control through ISDN (B-ISDN), with transmission integrated circuits (ICs) capable of the CCITT. speeds as high as 620 Mbit/s, will be processing information and is claimed Fujitsu has developed FLM2400, a able to handle high-density media such to be three to five times faster than synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) as high-definition television (HDTV), conventional silicon ICs. NTT has also optical telecommunications device for cable TV, and videotex. The asynchro- successfully carried out a 10-Gbit/s B-ISDN with a transmission speed of nous transfer mode (ATM) technique, optical transmission experiment using 2.4 Gbit/s. NTT also claims to be workkey to B-ISDN switching increases both dispersion-shifted single-mode optical ing in this area. SDH makes it possible speed and frequency bandwidth by a fibers with a combined length of to directly multiplex and cross-connect new transmission protocol. In N-ISDN, 1,260 km that are installed in a channels that have different capacities, telephone, fax, video, and TV signals commercial route between Tokyo and allowing greater freedom and operaare divided and passed through several Hamamatsu (route length 326 km). tional flexibility. In the B-ISDNdifferent switching systems and then NTT's Large-Scale Integration (LSI) compatible terminals arena, Fujitsu has re-combined just before reaching the Laboratory recently introduced two new developed Monster, a multimedia receiving terminals. ATM technology types of LSI chips for use with optical workstation with an image processing integrates these into a single net. The communications in B-ISDN. The FIFO capability, and has also announced a individual ATM transmitting terminal (first in, first out) LSI chip is intended plan to produce an HDTV signal chops the information waves into cells for ATM use, and the time-slot- compression system within 2 or 3 years of fixed lengths, assigns labels to them, converter LSI chip is designed for use that would be able to vary transmission and sends the “wavelets” to the net. in circuit divisions and multiplexing. speeds over a B-ISDN line by When these cells arrive at the receiving The FIFOLSI chip uses 0.8u BiCMOS 60 Mbit/s to 130 Mbit/s. Since HDTV end, the various information signals, technology on a single chip to upgrade signals require extremely high transgrouped by assigned label, are directed processing speeds from the 80 Mbit/s mission rates (approaching 1 Gbit/s), to appropriate terminals: telephones, of conventional FIFO to 250 Mbit/s, the optical fiber line over which the computers, or TV conference terminals. while reducing power consumption from signals are sent can become too crowded

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