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Appendix B

TITLES OF RECENT SURFACE PHYSICS LABORATORY RESEARCH PAPERS

Structural and Vibrational Properties Inverse Photoemission Spectra With of (Si),/(Ge), Superlattices, by Jian Zi High Resolution and High Efficiency, et al.

by Daoxuan Dai et al.

Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of LiB,0, by Yong-nian Xu and W.Y. Ching

Modification of Stillinger-Weber Poten- Theoretical Prediction of Melting Orthogonalized Linear Combinations tials for Si and Ge, by Jian Zi et al. Temperature for Silicon, by Jian Zi of Atomic Orbitals Method, IV. Incluet al.

sion of Relativistic Corrections, by Theoretical Study of Structure and

Xue-fu Zhong et al.
Growth of Strained Si/Ge Superlat- Lattice Dynamics of Strained Si/Ge
tices, by Jian Zi et al.
Superlattices, by Jian Zi et al.

Optical Properties of Vanadium

Pentoxide Determined from EllipRHEED Intensity Oscillation of MBE Germanium-Silicon

Germanium-Silicon Strained-Layer sometry and Band Structure CalculaGrown Ge/Si Ultrathin Multilayered Superlattices, by Xun Wang

tions, by J.C. Parker et al. Structures, by Xun Wang et al.

Progress of Semiconductor Physics in Electronic Structures of Feb, Fe,Band The Determination of the Momentum China--A Tribute to the Initiator: Prof. Fe, B Compounds Studied Using First Matrix Elements Involved in Calculat- Kun Huang, by X.D. Xie

Principles Spin-Polarized Calculations, ing the Dielectric Constants of Super

by W.Y. Ching et al. lattices Using the Tight-Binding Growth and Characterization of Ge/Si Method, by Zhizhong Xu

and Ge Si/Si Superlattices, by Electronic Structure and possible X. Wang, et al.

Mechanism of Potassium Induced Substrate-Induced Phonon Frequency

Promotion of Oxidation of Si (001) Shifts of (Si),/(Ge), Superlattices, by Investigation of Surface Reconstruc- 2X1, by L. Yi et al. Jian Zi et al.

tion During MBE Growth of Gs/Si(111)

and Si/Ge(111) Heterojunctions, by Vanadium Substituted 2212 and 2223 Formation of In/Gap (111) Interface Xun Wang et al.

Superconducting Ceramics, by Studied by Energy Loss Spectroscopy,

P.C.W. Fung et al. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and The Bonding Characterization of Alkali Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Metal on Si Surface, by X.D. Xie Surface Donors Induced by Hydrogen by M.R. Yu et al.

and Cesium Absorbed on InP(110) Synchrotron Radiation Studies of Surfaces, by X.Y. Hou et al. Surface Adsorption Properties of GaP Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces, (111) Studied by XPS, UPS and by Xide Xie

Structural Chemisorption of Co onto HREELS, by H.Y. Xiao et al.

Si (111) 7x7, by G. Rossi et al. Physics and Chemistry of III-V ComInverse Photoemission Studies of the pound Semiconductor Polar Surfaces, Electronic Structures of Ga- and Si(100) 2X1 Surface, by Daoxuan Dai by X. Wang

Zn-Substituted YBa2Cu, o by et al.

Yong-nian Xuet al. Chemisorption and Bonding CharacSurface Properties of Al, Ga, AS (100) terization of Metal on Semiconductor Self-Consistent Band Structures and Studied by XPS and ARUPS, by Surface, by L. Ye

Optical Calculations in Cubic FerroG.S. Dong et al.

electric Perovskites, by Yong-nian Xu Electronic and Optical Properties of et al. The Electronic Structure of (NH2)2S, Yttria, by W.Y. Ching and Yong-nian Xu Treated GaAs (100) Surface Studied by UPS and XPS, by X.F. Jin et al.

Appendix C

TITLES OF RECENT ION BEAM LABORATORY RESEARCH PAPERS

Ion Implantation in China, by High Carrier Concentration in InP by Synthesis of Tantalum Carbide Thin Shichang Zou & Xianghuai Liu Sit and p+ Dual Implantations, by Films by Ion Beam Enhanced DeposiHonglie Shen et al.

tion, by Min Zhang et al. Electrical Property Analysis of Er* Implanted Layer in Si, by Peida Wang A Study of Ion Beam Modification of Properties and Structure of Silicon & Huiling Sun

COMnNiO Amorphous Films, by Nitride Films Synthesized by Ion Beam
Hui Tan et al.

Enhanced Deposition, by Xianghuai Liu A Study of the Mechanism for the Influ

et al. ence of High Density Defect Move- XPS, S7Fe Mossbauer Spectra and ment on the Leakage Current of a PN Electrical Conductivity Studies on Synthesis of Silicon Nitride Films by Junction, by Tonghe Zhang et al. 57Fe-Implanted Polycrystalline Ion Beam Enhanced Deposition and

Alumina, by Goumei Wang et al. Their Protective Properties Against Double-Crystal Diffraction Investiga

Oxidation, by Shigeji Taniguchi et al. tion of High Energy B+ Implantation Investigation on Ion Beam Induced in Si, by Anmin Guan et al.

Damage Accumulation Mechanism of A Simulation of Ion Beam Enhanced

Organic Resists, by X.L. Xu et al. Deposition of Boron Nitride and SiliDamage Annealing Behavior in

con Nitride Films, by Binyao Jiang et al. Diatomic Phosphorus Ion Implanted Preparation of High J. YBa2Cu,O, Silicon, by Genqing Yang et al. Superconducting Thin Films by Ion Synthesis of Titanium Nitride Films by

Beam Sputtering Deposition, by Ion Beam Enhanced Deposition, by Auger Electron and IR Spectroscopic Congxing Ren et al.

Xi Wang et al. Studies of SOI Structure Formed by Oxygen and Nitrogen Implantation, by Effects of Fluorine Ion Implantation Formation of Titanium Nitride Films Yuehui Yu et al.

on Superconducting Properties of by Xe+ Ion Beam Enhanced Deposi

YBa2Cu,0.x Films, by Yijie Li et al. tion in a N, Gas Environment, by Ti Silicide Formation on Thin-Film

Xi Wang et al. Silicon on Insulator, by Chenglu Lin Effects of Ion Energy on Microstrucet al.

ture and Properties of IAD Metal Films, A Preliminary Study on Improving by Xianzheng Pan et al.

Cutting Tools by Ion Beam Enhanced Formation of Crystalline a-si N, Layer

Deposition, by Zhongchen Zhang et al. by Multiple Nitrogen Implantation at Formation of Transition Metal Carbide High Temperature, by Xianghuai Liu Thin Films by Dual Ion Beam et al.

Deposition at Room Temperature, by
Min Zhang et al.

7-X

ELECTROTECHNICAL LABORATORY CENTENNIAL HIGHLIGHTS THE FUTURE OF

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

After 100 years of service to the scientific and technological communities,
current Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) research shows youthful vigor
and wise direction to complement a long and distinguished track record. Of
particular interest is ETL's effective program for development of compact
synchrotron-radiation x-ray sources for x-ray lithography. This program is
well connected with semiconductor device development projects as well.

by Victor Rehn

BACKGROUND

research and development (R&D) A tabulation of ETL research themes

pursuant to significant technological, is shown in Table 3. Here the joint Located amid a cluster of public economic, and social impact, but which programs with the private sector and and private research centers in Tsukuba will involve both high risk of failure with other governmental agencies are Science City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, and a long lead time before impact. shown specifically, albeit without assothe Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) Currently, this mission is being pur- ciated budget figures. The tremendous is celebrating its centennial. ETL was sued by about 545 researchers and 678 breadth of the ETL research program founded in 1891 by the Ministry (then support persons on an annual budget is evident in Table 3: medical and welBureau) of Electrocommunications. In of about $77M. By its own count, ETL fare equipment technology, human 1952, ETL became affiliated with the is Japan's largest national research frontier science program, technologies Agency of Industrial Science and Tech- institute. See Figure 1 for budgetary for global environment, and internanology (AIST), an element of the allocations. One of the events of its tional joint research projects are notaMinistry of International Trade and centennial celebration was an elabo- ble examples. Industry (MITI). A major reorganiza- rate, well-organized, and well-attended tion in 1970 generated the current name 2-day open house. Four major areas of ELECTRONICS RESEARCH and a new focus on conducting research current R&D activities were highlighted in broad areas including electrical, in self-guided laboratory tours:

Self-guiding tours of 12 laboratory electronic, and information-processing

exhibits in each research area began in technologies for the purpose of ensur- • Electronics

an eighth floor exhibit room and coning technical innovation. The move to

tinued sequentially to laboratories Tsukuba (about an hour from Tokyo) • Standards and Measurement throughout the campus-like ETL in 1979 provided the campus-like set- Technology

complex. Some highlights of fundating and the modern facilities. Some

mental scientific research in the historical highlights are shown in the • Energy Technology

electronics area were: chronology in Table 1. • Information Technology

• A high sensitivity Hall device SCOPE OF THE

of strained, pseudomorphic RESEARCH PROGRAM As shown in Table 2, the organization In GaAs/Inos A10.48As/InP

supports these four research areas (semi-insulating), which demonAnother major reorganization in without specific organizational identi- strated electron mobility greater than 1988 set the current mission as basic fication.

10 cm?NV-s at 4 K.

Table 1.

Chronology of the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL)

Year

Event

1876 Insulator Testing Lab, forerunner of ETL.

1891 ETL was established in the Ministry of Communication.

1896 ETL started research on wireless telegraphy.

1936 ETL started research on extra-high voltage power transmission, establishing

the foundation for extra-high voltage power transmission in Japan.

1941 The 50th anniversary.

1948 Became part of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The part

concerned with communication was transferred to the Nippon Telegraph and
Telephone Public Corp. to establish the Electrical Communication Lab.

1958 Nuclear fusion research began.

1959 Development of the first transistor computer with stored program (Mark-IV).

1963 The part concerned with electrical appliances was separated to establish

the Japan Electrical Testing Lab.

1964 Elucidation of "phenomenon of resistance minimum" (Kondo effect).

1965 The part concerned with the inspection and testing of electrical meters

was separated to establish the Japan Electric Meters Inspection Corp.
All effort at ETL to be concentrated on research work.

1966 Large-scale project began.

1970 Reorganized to strengthen activities in the field of electronics.

1978 Moonlight project began.

1979 Moved from Tokyo to Tsukuba Science City to lay the foundation for progress

as an updated research organization adapted to the age of internationalization.

1980 Development of the pattern information processing system.

1981 A magnetohydrodynamic power generator, Mark VII, succeeded continuous

operation of more than 200 hours for electric power output of 100 kW.

1981 Key Technology for Future Industries project began.

1988 Reorganized.

1989 World's first Josephson computer, "ETL-JCI," was developed.

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