Japanese Advances in Fuzzy Systems and Case-Based Reasoning Daniel G. Schwartz This article presents a survey and assessment of fuzzy systems and case-based Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems '91 (MTNS '91) Biswa N. Datta The conference and site visits in Japan, Hong Kong, Macao, Singapore, and India Manufacturing Science State of the Art in Japanese Computer-Aided Design Methodologies for Daniel E. Whitney 89 Japanese use of computers in design of mechanical products is surveyed, the state Page Materials Science 113 Intelligent Materials Systems and Materials Science Research in Australia Iqbal Ahmad The concept of "smart/intelligent” materials systems is receiving increasing 119 High Performance/High Temperature Materials in Japan Frederick S. Pettit Current research in Japan on intermetallic compounds, functionally gradient Ocean Science 131 United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR) Pat Wilde A new subdivision of the UJNR program, Deep Marine Technology, is discussed. South Pacific Environmental Program (SPREP) Biodiversity Workshop and Marine Mammal Conservation Plan Gregory Stone, Michael Donoghue, and Stephen Leatherwood 137 The group identified environmental problems specific to island countries and Cover: The humpback whale. One of the first priorities for the South Pacific Environmental Program's (SPREP) proposed Marine Mammal Action Plan is to access humpback whale breeding populations in the region. Historically, the SPREP region contained many breeding sites for both the northern and southern hemisphere stocks. Contemporary breeding sites are poorly understood. Research programs would include surveys to identify the sites and the use of natural markings for individual identification. Photo courtesy of Gregory Stone (see his article on SPREP on page 137). SIBRIE Scientific Information Briefs * * * * * SUPERCOMPUTING They believe that these represent a supercomputer centers and had differBENCHMARK PROPOSAL significant cross section of fundamen- ent responsibilities than the Japanese. tal scientific computations and that by There are two upcoming superRecently, four Japanese scientists, allowing programmers to exercise total computing meetings, one in Fukuoka, Wong Weng Fai (wong@rkna50.riken. freedom in coding the programs to Japan, from 7-9 November 1991 and go.jp), Eiichi Goto, Yoshio Oyanagi solve these, the resulting benchmark another in Albuquerque, NM, from (oyanagi@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp), and figures will better reflect the underlying 18-22 November 1991. I think it would Nobuaki Yoshida (nyoshida@rkna50. architecture of the given machine. be valuable to have discussions on this riken.go.jp), have proposed two sets of In addition, they propose three proposal during these meetings. I also benchmark problems for supercomput- additional problems hope that some of the summer workers. Goto was the director of the Uni shop participants will provide a sumversity of Tokyo Computer Center until • Modular dip mary. Oyanagi is hoping to participate he retired in March 1991. He is now at • Memory hierarchy in a panel discussion at the Fukuoka Kanagawa University. Oyanagi is a • Burst mode meeting and may present a paper as central researcher in the QCDPAX well, but he will he will not be in parallel processing project at Tsukuba that are meant to highlightsubtle hard. Albuquerque.--David K. Kahaner, University, although he is now at the ware characteristics not exposed by the ONRASIA University of Tokyo. basic problem set. Their proposal allows for maximum The motivation for these proposed freedom for programmers within the benchmarks is to reflect fundamental constraints of the given problem to and frequently used capabilities of APPLIED MATHEMATICS select the language, programming style, supercomputers; to reflect chaining of WORKSHOP algorithm, and optimization necessary arithmetic logical units, which is a key to get best performance for solving the feature of today's supercomputers; and The primary goal of the workshop, given problem on a given machine. to reflect the memory addressing capa- which was held from 11-12 August 1991 Performance is measured in terms of bilities of these machines. at Tokushima University, was to facilnumber of outputs per unit time or Benchmarking is an important sub- itate the exchange of ideas on recent time taken to produce a specified unit ject both in the United States and developments in applied mathematics of output. European Community. Major projects by bringing together active researchers Six basic problems are are in progress at Los Alamos, the from universities and industrial labo National Aeronautics and Space ratories. In Japan, interaction between • Random number generation Administration, Illinois, and many other these two societies has been rather places. This summer there was a very limited. One of the principal organizers, • Elementary function generation small workshop on benchmarking Prof. Kametaka of Tokushima Univer between the United States (six per- sity, expressed hope that opportunities • Fast Fourier transform sons) and Japan (four persons) on Kauai, for meeting, establishing friendships, Hawaii. Oyanagi told me that he felt and promoting understanding between • Dense matrix computation the underlying trend was that the U.S. different communities would increase, participants were more interested in through small, informal workshops as • Rule-specified sparse matrix com- benchmarking applications, while this one at Tokushima. putation Japanese (including Oyanagi) stressed The workshop consisted of 14 the importance of architecture. He felt 50-minute talks on ordinary and par• List-vector-specified sparse matrix that one reason might be that the U.S. tial differential equations (ODEs and computation participants were mostly related to big PDEs), numerical simulation, and modelling. The presentations ranged distributed. Requests for copies should time and memory limit the practical from very mathematically abstract be addressed to H. Nakanishi and resolution that can be achieved. This is material to practical problem solving S. Toyoshima at the Mechanical a worldwide research activity. Theoretthrough numerical simulations. Com- Research Laboratory of Kobe Steel, ical and algorithmic developments have putationally oriented talks were given Kobe, Japan. been significant since the 1930s, earlier on the first day and more theoretical Following a Japanese tradition or for some situations. discussions on the second. Approxi- initiation rite, three students (Kimura A very excellent statement of at least mately 50 scientists attended. of Kyoto RIMS, Sasamoto of Chiba one Japanese scientist's opinion of this The three talks given by Japanese University, and Saw Win Maung of field was recently given by Prof. Kunio industrial researchers were on control Chiba University) presented their recent Kuwahara in an interview with Jaap theory and fuzzy logic (Fuji Electric), findings in numerical analysis. Saw Win Hollenberg in Supercomputer, July 1991 scientific visualization systems (IBM Maung is one of a growing number of (ISSN 0168-7875): “We need more Tokyo Research Laboratory), and gas- foreign students studying in Japanese power and less modeling.” Kuwahara solid flow simulation of discharge of universities. His presentation was, quite runs the Institute for Space and Astropowder coal from a bin (Kobe Steel). impressively, given in Japanese. nomical Sciences (ISAS) in Tokyo. His The first talk consisted of some basics The remainder of the talks were view is a very conservative one: of control theory and feedback systems from young academicians who often and mathematical modelling of sys- attend the Mathematical Society of I am only a computer user not a tems and processes. Unfortunately, time Japan and Kyoto RIMS meetings. Their computer architect. I am only limitations only allowed the speaker to work is already widely known in the interested in solving partial mention fuzzy logic during the last few general mathematical community. differential equations. ... We just minutes, and specific applications of Proceedings from the workshop solve the Navier-Stokes equation, the theory to systems at Fuji Electric will be compiled by Prof. Kametaka of that is all; very easy. ... I do not were not presented. During the question- Tokushima University and should be like to model. I like a direct and-answer session the speaker did, available by mid-October 1991. Inquiries approach to that phenomenon however, touch upon the difficulties of should be addressed to (turbulence), and take a very fine constructing more intelligent camera grid, then it is not difficult systems. Prof. Yoshinori Kametaka anymore, the difficulty is only The second talk began with an over- Dept of Mathematics and Computer the computer power. view of graphics tools developed at IBM. Sciences The capabilities of the tools were illus- Tokushima University When asked about special-purpose trated through specific examples, i.e., Minami-Josanjima-cho 1-1 computers, Kuwahara remarked that visualization of air and dust flow pat Tokushima 770, Japan these "will always become obsolete very tern simulation inside cleanrooms and Tel: +81-886-23-2311 X2293 soon, because you cannot change it. My memory disks, three-dimensional trans- Fax: +81-886-55-2108 vector machines are rather flexible.” lucent imaging of brain tumors, and Recently, a colleague mentioned to modelling and rendering of varieties of --Mei Kobayashi, IBM Japan me that at the Ninth Plane Computextures. The overview concluded with tational Aerodynamics Symposium, a 3-minute video of Edo Castle that 12-14 June 1991, held at the Japanese was presented at SIGGRAPH. The National Aerospace Laboratory, remainder of the talk consisted of a JAPANESE NATIONAL another view was presented in a paper short presentation on the speaker's work AEROSPACE LABORATORY'S titled “Specifications for a Parallel on inverse Sturm-Liouville problems (NAL) COMPUTING Computer for CFD,” by and image compression/ DIRECTIONS decompression system being developed Mr. Hajime Miyoshi using wavelet theory. A major application of supercom- Director, Computational Sciences The presentation on gas-solid flow puting is to the design of airplanes and Division simulation opened with an introduc- related vehicles. In fact, the goal of National Aerospace Laboratory tion to the flow equations. Numerical aircraft designers is to be able to simu- 7-44-1 Jindaiji-Higashimachi calculations of specific examples were late with fine spatial resolution the air Chofu, Tokyo 182 discussed in great detail, and a formal flow over a complete plane. Simula- Tel: +81-422-47-5911 write-up of the speaker's work was tions can be done now, but computer Fax: +81-422-8569 an |