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Or take the case of an ETV literature series. The book publishing industry has no standardized clearance system, but each publisher handles all clearance requests differently and according to its own lights. To use a portion of a copyrighted literary work would require a copyright search in Washington, D.C., to determine its status, and then long-distance negotiations with the New York publisher (who in turn might well have to consult with the author elsewhere in this country or abroad). The delay encountered in this process, even if by telephone rather than mail, is endless; the expense, even if no royalty is charged, is considerable; the time required on the part of production personnel, even if no outside attorney is required, is enormous. Worse, the chance of success in a sufficient number of cases to insure valid content for the program is not great-publishers are notoriously reluctant to consider television uses (even on ETV) where minimal or no royalties (as in ETV) can be charged.
As a philosophical matter, the educational television case is even stronger. The copyright law is premised upon public interest as well as private gain. Educational television enjoys many extraordinary Federal, State and local privileges—such as tax exemptions, Government grants, public facilities—simply because it is operated primarily for the general welfare on a completely nonprofit and noncommercial basis. No private gain can accrue from ETV stations; no advertising may be included in ETV broadcasts; no ETV broadcast time can be sold to commercial companies. As a result, it is is not surprising that the two Federal agencies closest to educational television, the Federal Communications Commission and the Office of Education, have officially indicated wholehearted opposition to discontinuance of the ETV copyright exemption. We welcome their support, and are confident that their official positions will be made known to you at an early date.
May we also express our thanks for permitting us to appear before this subcommittee so early in its hearings. We respectfully request, however, that we and other educational television organizations and agencies be given a further opportunity to amplify these rather cursory remarks, and to supply the subcommitee with a great deal more detailed information about educational television and its concerns in copyright revision.
(Subsequently, the following material was received and by order of the chairman, printed at this place in the record.)
EXHIBIT A The Joint NET-ETS Music and Copyright Committee is currently made up of the following membership:
David M. Davis, Assistant General Manager for Television Station WGBH-
John Young, Director of Television, University of North Carolina, Chapel
William J. Lamb, Vice-President, Station WNDT, New York City.
Curtis W. Davis, Director of Cultural Programming, National Educational Television.
Eugene N. Aleinikoff, General Counsel, National Educational Television. The Committee has been appointed jointly by N.E.T., the national ETV network, and by E.T.S., the ETV station division of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters, to advise and represent the ETV stations affiliated with N.E.T. and/or members of E.T.S. on music and other copyright matters-including these copyright revision proceedings.
EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION STATIONS AND STATE OR REGIONAL GROUPS (NOTE.-All stations listed below are currently on the air, unless otherwise noted. Asterisk (*) denotes commissions or advisory groups concerned with state-wide educational television.)
Alabama : WCIQ, WBIQ, WDIQ, WAIQ, WEIQ, 2151 Highland Avenue, Birmingham, Alabama, Raymond D. Hurlbert, General Manager.
KAET, Arizona State University, Temple, Arizona; Robert H. Ellis, Director of Broadcasting.
KUAT, Herring Hall, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Dr. Ben C. Markland, Manager & Program Director.
Arkansas: *Arkansas ETV Commission, 1515 W. 7th Street, Room 614, Little Rock, Arkansas: Lee Reaves (Expects to have first station on air by Sept. 1965).
*The Governor's Advisory Committee on Educational Television, Department of Finance, The Capitol Building, Sacramento, California; Dr. Lawrence T. Frymire.
San Joaquin Valley Community ETV Association, 5132 North Palm, Fresno, California ; Rod Gibson, Exec. Dir. (Anticipated air date: late 1965, or early 1966).
KCET, 1313 North Vine Street, Hollywood, California ; James Robertson, Vice President & Manager.
KIXE, Northern California ETV Assn., Redding, California ; Martin Jacobson, Director of Development.
KVIE, Sacramento, California ; John C. Crabbe, General Manager.
KVCR, 701 S. Mt. Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, California ; Robert F. Fuzy, Manager.
San Diego State College, San Diego, California; Frank W. Norwood, (Anticipated air date: late 1965 or early 1966).
KQED, 525 Fourth Street, San Francisco, California, James Day, General Manager.
KTEH, County of Santa Clara, 70 W. Hedding Street, San Jose, California ; Warren L. Wade, Station Manager.
KCSM-TV, College of San Mateo, 1700 Hillsdale Boulevard, San Mateo, California ; Dr. Jacob H. Wiens, Director.
Santa Barbara ETV Assn., 831 State Street, Santa Barbara, California ; John Sink (Anticipated air date: 1966).
Colorado : University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; Richard H. Bell, Director, RadioTV (Anticipated air date: 1966).
KRMA-TV, 1250 Welton Street, Denver, Colorado; Russell L. Casement, Executive Director.
Southern Colorado State College, Pueblo, Colorado; Gerald F. Caduff, Acting Director, ETV (Anticipated air date: late 1965).
Connecticut: WEDH, Connecticut ETV Corp., c/o Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut; Ben A. T. Hudelson, General Manager.
District of Columbia : WETA-TV, 1225—19th Street, Washington, D. C.; William J. McCarter, General Manager.
*Educational TV Comm., 303 Dodd Hall, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, Florida ; William Galbreath.
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida ; Dr. Kenneth Rast, Williams, President, (anticipated air date: Sept., 1965).
WUFT, University of Florida, 234 Stadium, Gainesvile, Florida ; Dr. Kenneth A. Christensen, Director of Television.
WJCT, 2037 Main Street, Jacksonville, Florida; Fred Rebman, General Manager.
WTHS-TV, WSEC-TV, 1410 N.S. 2nd Avenue, Miami, Florida ; George Dooley, General Manager.
WMFE-TV, Mid-Florida Educational TV, Box 271, Orlando, Florida; A. F. Edmunds, Director of ETV.
WFSU-TV, 202 Dodd Hall, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida ; Edward L. Herp, Director of Broadcasting.
WEDU, 908 South 20th Street, Tampa, Florida; R. Leroy Lastinger, General Manager.
University of South Florida and Florida ETV Commission Tampa, Florida ; Dr. G. C. Eichholez, Director, Div. of Educational Resources, (anticipated air date: Jan. 1966).
WGTV, Center for Continuing Education, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia ; Dr. William H. Hale, Acting Associate Director.
WETV, 740 Bismark Road, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia ; Haskell Boyter, Director & Station Manager.
WXGA, WVAN-TV, WJSP-TV, 2293 State Office Building, Atlanta, Georgia; Lee Franks, Director, Educational Television.
Hawaii : Communications Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii; Robert M. Reed, Associate Director, (expects to have first station on air in early 1966).
Idaho: University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho; Gordon Law, (anticipated air date: June, 1965).
*Dept. of Educational Television, Office of Supt. of Public Instruction, State of Illinois, Springfield, Illinois ; Dr. Robert M. Schultz, Director.
WSIU-TV, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois; Buren C. Robbins, General Manager.
WTTW, 1761 E. Museum Drive, Chicago, Illinois; Dr. John W. Taylor, Executive Director.
Southern Illinois University, Olney, Illinois ; Buren C. Robbins, (anticipated air date : 1966).
WILL-TV, 227 Gregory Hall, Urbana, Illinois; Frank E. Schooley, Director of Broadcasting & Manager.
Indiana : WTIU, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; George Johnson, (anticipated air date: Sept. 1966).
TV Unit, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana ; James Miles, Director, Radio-TV (First of 8 stations expected to be on air in late 1965). Iowa:
KDPS-TV, 1800 Grand Avenue, Des Moines, Iowa 50307; John A. Montgomery, Manager. Kansas :
Washburn University of Topeka, Topeka, Kansas; Gerald K. Barker, Director, ETV (Anticipated air date: Jan. 1966). Kentucky:
Kentucky Authority for ETV, 1220 So. Broadway, Lexington, Kentucky; 0. Leonard Press, Executive Director (first of 8 stations expected to be on air in Jan. 1966).
WFPK-TV, 2301 Clarendon Avenue, Louisville, Kentucky; Kenneth F. Lam, ETV Director. Louisiana :
WYES-TV, 916 Navarre Avenue, New Orleans, Louisiana 70124; Arthur D. Cloud, Jr., General Manager. Maine:
WCBB, Bates College, Lewiston, Maine 04240; Elmore B. Lyford, Executive Director.
WMED-TV, WMEM-TV, WMEB, Alumni Hall, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04473; John W. Dunlop, General Manager. Massachusetts :
WGBH-TV, 125 Western Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02134; Hartford N. Gunn, Jr., General Manager. Michigan :
WTVS, 5035 Woodward, Detroit, Michigan 48202 ; Dr. Paul B. Rickard, Acting Manager.
WMSB, 600 Kalamazoo Street, East Lansing, Michigan 48823; Colby Lewis, Acting Station Manager.
WCMU, Special Studies, Bldg., S-4, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan; Charles B. Park, TV Director (anticipated air date: Spring, 1966).
WUCM, Delta College, University Center, Michigan; William J. Ballard. Minnesota :
WDSE-TV, Duluth-Superior Area ETV Corp., 406 Bradley Building, Duluth, Minnesota; George A. Beck, President.
KTCA, KTCI, 1640 Como Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108; Dr. John C. Schwarzwalder, General Manager. Missouri:
KCSD-TV, Board of Education Building, 1211 McGee Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; Zoel J. Parentau, Program Director.
KETC, 6996 Millbrook Road, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 ; Robert J. Nissen, Acting General Manager. Nebraska :
KUON-TV, University of Nebraska, 12th and R Streets, Lincoln, Nebraska ; Jack G. McBride, General Manager.
Nebraska ETV Commission, Lexington, Nebraska; (Lexington is first of 6 stations expected to be on air in late 1965, next station in Omaha). New Hampshire:
WENH-TV, Box Z, Durham, New Hampshire; Keith J. Nighbert, Manager. New Mexico:
KNME-TV, 1801 Roma, N. E., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106; Dr. F. Claude Hempen, Manager. New York:
*University of the State of New York, State Education Department, Albany, New York; Lee Campion.
WNED-TV, Lafayette Hotel, Buffalo, New York 14203; Leslie C. Martin, General Manager.
WNDT, 304 West 58th Street, New York, New York; John W. Kiermaier, President.
WNYC-TV, 2500 Municipal Building, New York, New York; Seymour N. Siegel, Director.
WMHT, P. O. Box 17, Schenectady, New York; Donald E. Schein, Manager.
WHTV, ETV Council of State of N. Y., Syracuse, New York, Thomas Petry, Director (Anticipated Air Date: Early 1966).
North Carolina :
WUNC-TV, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; John E. Young, Director of Television.
WTVI, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, 42 Coliseum Drive, Charlotte, North Carolina ; Miss Dona Lee Davenport, Director. (Anticipated air date: Sept. 1965).
North Dakota: KFME, Box 6, Fargo, North Dakota; Dr. Clair R. Tettemer, General Manager.
*Ohio ETV Network Commission, 21 West Broad Street, Columbus, Ohio; E. H. Gillis, Executive Secretary.
WOUB-TV, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio; Dr. Presley D. Holmes, General Manager.
WBGU-TV, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio; Dr. Duane E. Tucker, General Manager.
WCET, 2222 Chickasaw Street, Cincinnati, Ohio; Uberto T. Neely, General Manager.
WVIZ, ETV Assn. of Metro Cleveland, 4600 Detroit Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio; Alan Stephenson.
WOSU-TV, Telecommunications Center, 2470 North Star Road, Columbus, Ohio; Richard B. Hull, Executive Director.
WGSF, Newark Public Schools, 9–19 North Fifth Street, Newark, Ohio; E. Dana Cox, Jr., General Manager.
WMUB-TV, Miami University, Oak at Spring Street, Oxford, Ohio; Dr. Stephen C. Hathaway, Director of Broadcasting.
WGTE-TV, Manhattan Boulevard at Elm, Toledo, Ohio; Harry D. Lamb, General Manager.
KETA-TV, KOED-TV, Box 2005, Norman, Oklahoma; John W. Dunn, Director.
KOKH-TV, 1801 North Ellison, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Dr. Mervel Lunn, Director of Television.
Oregon: KOAC-TV, KOAP-TV, Covell Hall, Oregon State College, Corvallis, Oregon; Dr. Luke F. Lamb, Director of Educational Media. Pennsylvania :
*Dept. of Public Instruction, State Board of Education, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania ; Dr. Marcus Konick, Director.
Lehigh Valley ETV Corp., 230 West Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; Sheldon P. Siegel, General Manager. (Anticipated air date: Sept. 1965).
WITF-TV, South Central Educational Broadcasting Council, Box Z, Hershey, Pennsylvania ; Lloyd Kaiser, General Manager.
WHYY-TV, WUHY-TV, 4548 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Warren A. Kraetzer, Executive Vice President & General Manager.
WQEX, WQED, 4337 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; Donald V. Taverner, President.
WPSX-TV, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; Marlowe Froke.
Northeastern Pennsylvania ETV Assn., 81-83 North Washington Street, Wilkes-Barre, Pennyslvania ; Walter C. Wood, President (Anticipated air date: 1966).
Puerto Rico : WIPR-TV, WIPM-TV, P. O. Box 909, Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Jack Delano, General Manager.
South Carolina: WNTV, WITV, 2712 Millwood Avenue, Columbia, South Carolina ; R. Lynn Kalmbach, General Manager.
South Dakota : KUSD-TV, Union Building, Univ. of S. Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota ; Martin P. Busch, Director.
WKNO-TV, Box 642, Memphis State Univ., Memphis, Tennessee; Howard D. Holst, Manager.
WDCN-TV, P. O. Box 6188, Acklen Station, Nashville, Tennessee; Robert Glazier, General Manager.
State Board of Education, Sneedville, Tennessee; Chester Hill (Anticipated air date : 1966).
KLRN, P. O. Box 7158, University Station, Austin, Texas; Robert F. Schenkkan, General Manager.
KERA-TV, 3000 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas; Ray Huffer, Station Manager.
KUHT, 4513 Cullen Boulevard, Houston, Texas; Roy E. Barthold, Station Manager.
KTXT-TV, Box 4408, Tech Station, Lubbock, Texas; D.M. McElroy, Director of ETV.
KRET-TV, 400 South Greenville, Richardson, Texas; Thomas B. Hill, Director. Utah:
KUSU-TV, 745 North 12th East, Utah State University, Logan, Utah; Dr. Burrell F. Hansen, General Manager.
KOET, 1538 Gibson Avenue, Ogden, Utah; Harold Hickman, General Manager.
KWCS-TV, 1122 Washington Boulevard, Ogden, Utah; Ben Van Shaar, Manager & Director. KBYU-TV, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah ; T. M. Williams, Director.
KUED, 101 Music Hall, Salt Lake City, Utah; Rex Campbell, Director of Radio-TV Services.
*Virginia Adivsory Council on ETV, P. O. Box 1423, Richmond, Virginia ; D. V. Chapman, Jr.
Shenandoah Valley ETV Corp., 153 So. Main Street, Harrisonburg, Virginia ; Arthur Hamilton (Anticipated air date: 1966).
WHRO-TV, 5200 Hampton Boulevard, Norfolk, Virginia ; Randolph Brent, Station Manager.
WCVE, Central Virginia ETV Corp., 1904 Old Farm Road, Richmond, Virginia; B. W. Spiller, General Manager.
Vermont: University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont; R. V. Phillips, Director (expects to have first of four stations on air in early 1966).
KWSC-TV, Arts Hall, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington ; Robert A. Mott, Manager, Radio-TV Services.
KCTS-TV, Drama-TV Building, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Loren B. Stone, Station Manager.
Spokane School District, West 825 Trent Avenue, Spokane, Washington; William Sorenson, Superintendent (anticipated air date: Late 1965).
KPEC-TV, 4500 Steilacoom Boulevard, Tacoma, Washington; J. Albert Brevik, Director, Television Education.