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SUMMARY.

BOOK XXI.

INTRODUCTION. Greatness of the conflict, ch. 1. Hamilcar and Hannibal, Hannibal's character, ch. 2-4. Hannibal brings on a war with Saguntum, a neutral town. The Romans are disturbed, ch. 5, 6. The Romans send an embassy to Hannibal, which, on being refused a hearing, goes on to Carthage, ch. 9. Speeches in the Carthaginian Senate, ch. 10. An unsuccessful attempt to bring about an agreement between Hannibal and the Saguntines, ch. 12, 13. The siege of Saguntum is successfully concluded, ch..14.

Excursus on chronology, ch. 15. Anxiety in Rome, and preparations for war, ch. 16, 17. War declared by envoys to the Carthaginian Senate and accepted by the Carthaginians, ch. 18, 19. The Roman envoys attempt to arouse northern Spain and Gaul for Rome, ch. 19, 20. Hannibal disbands his army for the winter, makes a journey to Gades, and prepares for an advance against Rome in the spring, ch. 21, 22.

March to Italy.

Passage of the Pyrenees and advance through
Preparations of the Romans and despatch of
Passage of the Rhone by

Gaul, ch. 23, 24.
Scipio to intercept Hannibal, ch. 25, 26.
Hannibal, ch. 27, 28. A skirmish between Scipio's cavalry and the
Numidian horse of Hannibal issues in favor of the Romans, ch. 29.
Hannibal, having received guides from the Gauls in Italy, and
having settled a dispute among the Allobroges, ch. 31, advances
toward the Alps, while Scipio, unable to overtake him, returns to
Italy, ch. 32.

Passage of the Alps. Opposition of the mountaineers, ch. 32-34. The summit attained, ch. 35. Difficulty of the descent increased by a landslide, ch. 36, 37. Critical note on the route of Hannibal, ch, 38.

Hannibal in Italy. On reaching the Po, he is confronted by Scipio, ch. 39. Scipio's speech to his army, (for an outline, see the notes,) ch. 40, 41. Hannibal, after a contest of the captives, addresses his soldiers (see notes), and makes promises of rewards, ch. 42-45. Defeat of the Romans in a cavalry engagement on the Ticinus, and withdrawal of Scipio to Placentia, ch. 46, 47. Mutiny of the Gallic auxiliaries of the Romans, ch. 48. Roman naval successes near Sicily, ch. 49-51. Sempronius recalled to aid Scipio. A slight success makes him confident, ch. 52, 53. Hannibal prepares for battle and lays an ambush, ch. 54, 55. Disastrous defeat of the Romans on the Trebia. Its effect on Rome. Operations during the winter of 218-217, ch. 56, 57. Hannibal attempts unsuccessfully to cross the Apennines, ch. 58. Placentia, ch. 59.

Indecisive battle near

Roman successes in Spain, ch. 60, 61. Prodigies at and near Rome, ch. 62. Election of consuls. Flaminius goes to Ariminum to enter on his office without performing the customary religious and ceremonial rites, ch. 63.

Book XXII.

With the coming of spring, 217, the war is renewed. Prodigies at Rome, ch. 1. Hannibal, leaving the Po, crosses the Apennines to Etruria. Owing to the inundation of the country, his army suffers severely, and he loses an eye, ch. 2. By devastating the country, Hannibal seeks to draw Flaminius to a battle. Flaminius, in opposition to the advice of his council, follows in pursuit, ch. 3. Flaminius, proceeding without reconnaissance, is drawn into a trap at Lake Trasumennus, disastrously defeated, and loses his own life. Terrible anxiety at Rome intensified by the capture of a division of cavalry in Umbria, ch. 4-8.

Hannibal reorganizes his army and proceeds southward to Apulia. The Sibylline books are consulted, ch. 9. Temples and a sacred spring are vowed, and Fabius is appointed dictator, ch. 10. Fabius, raising a new army, maintains a purely defensive policy, contrary to the views of Minucius,.the master of horse, ch. 11, 12. Hannibal, seeking a battle, is lead by a mistake of his guides, ch. 13, into Campania, which he plunders. Indignation of Minucius and the

army at Fabius' inactivity, ch. 14. Fabius, having occupied the passes from Campania, Hannibal forces a pass in the night by the stratagem of torches bound to the horns of oxen, and returns to Apulia, ch. 15-18.

Roman successes in Spain: an important naval victory, ch. 19; ravaging of the coast and islands, ch. 20; incitement of the Carthaginian allies to revolt, ch. 21; and securing possession of the hostages given by the Spaniards to the Carthaginians, ch. 22.

Fabius' defensive policy disliked by the Romans, ch. 23. In the absence of Fabius at Rome Minucius secures a slight success, ch. 24. The discontented party at Rome, led by Varro, a man of mean origin, gives Minucius equal authority with Fabius. The army is divided between them, ch. 25–27. Hannibal entraps Minucius, who is rescued by Fabius, and then returns under Fabius' authority, ch. 28-30. Servilius makes an unsuccessful descent on Africa, ch. 31. The consuls continue Fabius' policy. Offer of gifts and assistance by the Neapolitans, ch. 32. Capture of a Carthaginian spy at Rome, ch. 33.

Elections held by an interrex. C. Terentius Varro and L. Aemilius Paulus chosen consuls, ch. 34, 35. An unprecedentedly large army is raised to crush Hannibal, ch. 36. Offers of help from Hiero of Syracuse, ch. 37. Fabius cautions Paulus against Hannibal and Varro, ch. 38, 39. The consuls go to Apulia, ch. 40. A slight success emboldens Varro, who is barely kept by Paulus from falling into a trap of Hannibal's, ch. 41, 42. Hannibal, in distress for supplies, encamps at Cannae and is followed by the consuls, ch. 43, 44. Battle of Cannae, ending in the total rout of the Romans and the death of Paulus. A few Romans only escape, ch. 45–50. Hannibal refuses Maharbal's advice to march on Rome, ch. 51. Surrender of the Roman camps to Hannibal. Kindness of Busa to the fugitives, ch. 52.

A plot of some young nobles to abandon their country thwarted by Scipio, ch. 53. Varro collects the fugitives. News of the battle reaches Rome. The Senate represses confusion and on receipt of dispatches limits the period of official mourning, ch. 54-56. Unchastity of two Vestals punished. Human sacrifices. Other measures, ch. 57. Hannibal releases the other prisoners and allows a

deputation of Romans to go to Rome to obtain ransom, ch. 58. Speech of the leader of the deputation in the Senate (see notes), ch. 59. Reply of T. Manlius Torquatus, (see notes,) ch. 60. Determination not to ransom the prisoners. Revolt of Roman allies. The Romans, however, are firm, and Varro on his return is thanked for "not having despaired of the republic,” ch. 61.

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