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(2) There are data demonstrating significant intra-batch and batch-to-batch variability, e.g., plus or minus 25 percent, in the bioavailability of the drug product.

(h) The requirements of this section regarding the submission of evidence demonstrating in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence apply only to a full or abbreviated new drug application or a supplemental application for a finished dosage formulation.

(57 FR 17998, Apr. 28, 1992]

8 320.22 Criteria for waiver of evidence

of in vivo bioavailability or bio

equivalence. (a) Any person submitting a full or abbreviated new drug application, or a supplemental application proposing any of the changes set forth in $320.21(c), may request FDA to waive the requirement for the submission of evidence demonstrating the in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence of the drug product that is the subject of the application. An applicant shall submit a request for waiver with the application. Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, FDA shall waive the requirement for the submission of evidence of in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence if the drug product meets any of the provisions of paragraphs (b), (c), (d), or (e) of this section.

(b) For certain drug products, the in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence of the drug product may be self-evident. FDA shall waive the requirement for the submission of evidence obtained in vivo demonstrating the bioavailability or bioequivalence of these drug products. A drug product's in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence may be considered self-evident based on other data in the application if the product meets one of the following criteria:

(1) The drug product:

(1) Is a parenteral solution intended solely for administration by injection, or an ophthalmic or otic solution; and

(ii) Contains the same active and inactive ingredients in the same concentration as a drug product that is the subject of an approved full new drug application.

(2) The drug product:

(i) Is administered by inhalation as a gas, e.g., a medicinal or an inhalation anesthetic; and

(ii) Contains an active ingredient in the same dosage form as a drug product that is the subject of an approved full new drug application.

(3) The drug product:

(i) Is a solution for application to the skin, an oral solution, elixir, syrup, tincture, or similar other solubilized form.

(ii) Contains an active drug ingredient in the same concentration and dosage form as a drug product that is the subject of an approved full new drug application; and

(iii) Contains no inactive ingredient or other change in formulation from the drug product that is the subject of the approved full new drug application that may significantly affect absorption of the active drug ingredient or active moiety.

(c) FDA shall waive the requirement for the submission of evidence demonstrating the in vivo bioavailability of a solid oral dosage form (other than an enteric coated or controlled release dosage form) of a drug product determined to be effective for at least one indication in a Drug Efficacy Study Implementation notice or

or which is identical, related, or similar to such a drug product under $310.6 of this chapter unless FDA has evaluated the drug product under the criteria set forth in $320.32, included the drug product in the Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations List, and rated the drug product as having a known or potential bioequivalence problem. A drug product so rated reflects a determination by FDA that an in vivo bioequivalence study is required.

(d) For certain drug products, bioavailability or bioequivalence may be demonstrated by evidence obtained in vitro in lieu of in vivo data. FDA shall waive the requirement for the submission of evidence obtained in vivo demonstrating the bioavailability of the drug product if the drug product meets one of the following criteria:

(1) [Reserved]

(2) The drug product is in the same dosage form, but in a different strength, and is proportionally similar in its active and inactive ingredients to another drug product for which the same manufacturer has obtained approval and the conditions in paragraphs (d)(2)(i) through (d)(2)(iii) of this section are met:

(1) The bioavailability of this other drug product has been demonstrated;

(ii) Both drug products meet an appropriate in vitro test approved by FDA; and

(iii) The applicant submits evidence showing that both drug products are proportionally similar in their active and inactive ingredients.

(iv) This subparagraph does not apply to enteric coated or controlled release dosage forms.

(3) The drug product is, on the basis of scientific evidence submitted in the application, shown to meet an in vitro test that has been correlated with in vivo data.

(4) The drug product is a reformulated product that is identical, except for a different color, flavor, or preservative that could not affect the bioavailability of the reformulated product, to another drug product for which the same manufacturer has obtained approval and the following conditions are met:

(i) The bioavailability of the other product has been demonstrated; and

(ii) Both drug products meet an appropriate in vitro test approved by FDA.

(e) FDA, for good cause, may waive a requirement for the submission of evidence of in vivo bioavailability if waiver is compatible with the protection of the public health. For full new drug applications, FDA may defer a requirement for the submission of evidence of in vivo bioavailability if deferral is compatible with the protection of the public health.

(f) FDA, for good cause, may require evidence of in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence for any drug product if the agency determines that any difference between the drug product and a listed drug may

affect the bioavailability or bioequivalence of the drug product.

8320.23 Basis for demonstrating in

vivo bioavailability or bioequiva

lence. (a)(1) The in vivo bioavailability of a drug product is demonstrated if the product's rate and extent of absorption, as determined by comparison of measured parameters, e.g., concentration of the active drug ingredient in the blood, urinary excretion rates, or pharmacological effects, do not indicate a significant difference from the reference material's rate and extent of absorption. For drug products that are not intended to be absorbed into the bloodstream, bioavailability may be assessed by measurements intended to reflect the rate and extent to which the active ingredient or active moiety becomes available at the site of action.

(2) Statistical techniques used shall be of sufficient sensitivity to detect differences in rate and extent of absorption that are not attributable to subject variability.

(3) A drug product that differs from the reference material in its rate of absorption, but not in its extent of absorption, may be considered to be bioavailable if the difference in the rate of absorption is intentional, is appropriately reflected in the labeling, is not essential to the attainment of effective body drug concentrations on chronic use, and is considered medically insignificant for the drug product.

(b) Two drug products will be considered bioequivalent drug products if they are pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives whose rate and extent of absorption do not show a significant difference when administered at the same molar dose of the active moiety under similar experimental conditions, either single dose or multiple dose. Some pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives may be equivalent in the extent of their absorption but not in their rate of absorption and yet may be considered bioequivalent because such differences in the rate of absorption are intentional and are reflected in the labeling, are not essential to the attainment of effective body drug concentrations on chronic use, and are considered medically insignificant for the particular drug product studied.

(57 FR 17998, Apr. 28, 1992)

[57 FR 17999, Apr. 28, 1992)

8320.24 Types of evidence to establish

bioavailability or bioequivalence. (a) Bioavailability or bioequivalence may be determined by several in vivo and in vitro methods. FDA may require in vivo or in vitro testing, or both, to establish the bioavailability of a drug product or the bioequivalence of specific drug products. Information on bioequivalence requirements for specific products is included in the current edition of FDA's publication "Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations” and any current supplement to the publication. The selection of the method used to meet an in vivo or in vitro testing requirement depends upon the purpose of the study, the analytical methods available, and the nature of the drug product. Applicants shall conduct bioavailability and bioequivalence testing using the most accurate, sensitive, and reproducible approach available among those set forth in paragraph (b) of this section. The method used must be capable of demonstrating bioavailability or bioequivalence, as appropriate, for the product being tested.

(b) The following in vivo and in vitro approaches, in descending order of accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility, are acceptable for determining the bioavailability or bioequivalence of a drug product.

(1)(i) An in vivo test in humans in which the concentration of the active ingredient or active moiety, and, when appropriate, its active metabolite(s), in whole blood, plasma, serum, or other appropriate biological fluid is measured as a function of time. This approach is particularly applicable to dosage forms intended to deliver the active moiety to the bloodstream for systemic distribution within the body; or

(ii) An in vitro test that has been correlated with and is predictive of human in vivo bioavailability data; or

(iii) An in vivo test in animals that has been correlated with and is predictive of human bioavailability data.

(2) An in vivo test in humans in which the urinary excretion of the active moiety, and, when appropriate, its active metabolite(s), are measured as a function of time. The intervals at which measurements are taken should

ordinarily be as short as possible so that the measure of the rate of elimination is as accurate as possible. Depending on the nature of the drug product, this approach may be applicable to the category of dosage forms described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. This method is not appropriate where urinary excretion is not a significant mechanism of elimination.

(3) An in vivo test in humans in which an appropriate acute pharmacological effect of the active moiety, and, when appropriate, its active metabolite(s), are measured as a function of time if such effect can be measured with sufficient accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility. This approach is applicable to the category of dosage forms described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section only when appropriate methods are not available for measurement of the concentration of the moiety, and, when appropriate, its active metabolite(s), in biological fluids or excretory products but a method is available for the measurement of an appropriate acute pharmacological effect. This approach may be particularly applicable to dosage forms that are not intended to deliver the active moiety to the bloodstream for systemic distribution.

(4) Well-controlled clinical trials in humans that establish the safety and effectiveness of the drug product, for purposes of establishing bioavailability, or appropriately designed comparative clinical trials, for purposes of demonstrating bioequivalence. This approach is the least accurate, sensitive, and reproducible of the general approaches for determining bioavailability or bioequivalence. For dosage forms intended to deliver the active moiety to the bloodstream for systemic distribution, this approach may be considered acceptable only when analytical methods cannot be developed to permit use of one of the approaches outlined in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (b)(2) of this section, when the approaches described in paragraphs (b)(1)(ii), (b)(1)(iii), and (b)(3) of this section are not available. This approach may also be considered sufficiently accurate for determining the bioavailability or bioequivalence of dosage forms intended to deliver the

to

active moiety locally, e.g., topical preparations for the skin, eye, and mucous membranes; oral dosage forms not intended to be absorbed, e.g., an antacid or radiopaque medium; and bronchodilators administered by inhalation if the onset and duration of pharmacological activity are defined.

(5) A currently available in vitro test acceptable to FDA (unusually a dissolution rate test) that ensures human in vivo bioavailability.

(6) Any other approach deemed adequate by FDA

establish bioavailability or bioequivalence.

(c) FDA may, notwithstanding prior requirements for establishing bioavailability or bioequivalence, require in vivo testing in humans of a product at any time if the agency has evidence that the product:

(1) May not produce therapeutic effects comparable to a pharmaceutical equivalent or alternative with which it is intended to be used interchangeably;

(2) May not be bioequivalent to a pharmaceutical equivalent or alternative with which it is intended to be used interchangeably; or

(3) Has greater than anticipated potential toxicity related to pharmacokinetic or other characteristics.

an

(b) Basic design. The basic design of an in vivo bioavailability study is determined by the following:

(1) The scientific questions to be answered.

(2) The nature of the reference material and the dosage form to be tested.

(3) The availability of analytical methods.

(4) Benefit-risk considerations in regard to testing in humans.

(c) Comparison to a reference material. In vivo bioavailability testing of a drug product shall be in comparison to an appropriate reference material unless some other approach is more appropriate for valid scientific reasons.

(d) Previously unmarketed active drug ingredients or therapeutic moieties. (1) The purpose

of

in vivo bioavailability study involving a drug product containing an active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety that has not been approved for marketing is to determine:

(i) The bioavailability of the formulation proposed for marketing; and

(ii) The essential pharmacokinetic characteristics of the active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety, such as the rate of absorption, the extent of absorption, the half-life of the therapeutic moiety in vivo, and the rate of excretion and/or metabolism. Dose proportionality of the active drug ingredient or the therapeutic moiety needs to be established after single-dose administration and in certain instances after multiple-dose administration. This characterization is a necessary part of the investigation of the drug to support drug labeling.

(2) The reference material in such a bioavailability study should be a solution or suspension containing the same quantity of the active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety as the formulation proposed for marketing.

(3) The reference material should be administered by the same route as the formulation proposed for marketing unless an alternative or additional route is necessary to answer the scientific question under study. For example, in the case of an active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety that is poorly absorbed after oral administration, it may be necessary to compare

(57 FR 17999, Apr. 28, 1992; 57 FR 29354, July 1, 1992)

8 320.25 Guidelines for the conduct of

an in vivo bioavailability study. (a) Guiding principles. (1) The basic principle in an in vivo bioavailability study is that no unnecessary human research should be done.

(2) An in vivo bioavailability study shall not be conducted in humans if an appropriate animal model exists and correlation of results in animals and humans has been demonstrated. If an appropriate animal model does not exist, however, an in vivo

bioavailability study shall ordinarily be done in normal adults under standardized conditions.

(3) In some situations, an in vivo bioavailability study in humans may preferably and more properly be done in suitable patients. Critically ill patients shall not be included in an in vivo bioavailability study unless the attending physician determines that there is a potential benefit to the patient.

the oral dosage form proposed for marketing with the active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety administered in solution both orally and intravenously.

(e) New formulations of active drug ingredients or therapeutic moieties approved for marketing. (1) The purpose of an in vivo bioavailability study involving a drug product that is a new formulation, a new dosage form, or a new salt or ester of an active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety that has been approved for marketing is to:

(1) Determine the bioavailability of the new formulation, new dosage form, or new salt or ester relative to an appropriate reference material, and

(ii) Define the pharmacokinetic parameters of the new formulation, new dosage form, or new salt or ester to establish dosage recommendation.

(2) The selection of the reference material(s) in such a bioavailability study depends upon the scientific questions to be answered, the data needed to establish comparability to a currently marketed drug product, and the data needed to establish dosage recommendations.

(3) The reference material should be taken from a current batch of a drug product that is the subject of an approved new drug application and that contains the same active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety, if the new formulation, new dosage form, or new salt or ester is intended to be comparable to or to meet any comparative labeling claims made in relation to the drug product that is the subject of an approved new drug application.

(f) Controlled release formulations. (1) The purpose

of an in vivo bioavailability study involving a drug product for which a controlled release claim is made is to determine if all of the following conditions are met:

(i) The drug product meets the controlled release claims made for it.

(ii) The bioavailability profile established for the drug product rules out the occurrence of any dose dumping.

(iii) The drug product's steady-state performance is equivalent to a currently marketed. noncontrolled release or controlled release drug product that contains the same active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety and that is

subject to an approved full new drug application.

(iv) The drug product's formulation provides consistent pharmacokinetic performance between individual dosage units.

(2) The reference material(s) for such a bioavailability study shall be chosen to permit an appropriate scientific evaluation of the controlled release claims made for the drug product. The reference material shall be one of the following or any combination thereof:

(i) A solution or suspension of the active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety.

(ii) A currently marketed noncontrolled release drug product containing the same active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety and administered according to the dosage recommendations in the labeling of the noncontrolled release drug product.

(iii) A currently marketed controlled release drug product subject to an approved full new drug application containing the same active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety and administered according to the dosage recommendations in the labeling proposed for the controlled release drug product.

(iv) A reference material other than one set forth in paragraph (1)(2) (i), (ii) or (iii) of this section that is appropriate for valid scientific reasons.

(8) Combination drug products. (1) Generally, the purpose of an in vivo bioavailability study involving a combination drug product is to determine if the rate and extent of absorption of each active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety in the combination drug product is equivalent to the rate and extent of absorption of each active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety administered concurrently in separate singleingredient preparations.

(2) The reference material in such a bioavailability study should be two or more currently marketed, single-ingredient drug products each of which contains one of the active drug ingredients or therapeutic moieties in the combination drug product. The Food and Drug Administration may, for valid scientific reasons, specify that the reference material shall be a combination drug product that is the subject of an approved new drug application.

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