Tree and Forest Measurement

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2004 - Всего страниц: 167
Trees and forests are large and complex, but even something as difficult as the amount of wood they contain can be measured with quite unsophisticated equipment. Everyone, from professional foresters to the layperson, who works with forests and needs to measure them no matter where in the world, will appreciate this book. It summarises modern forest measurement techniques and describes why forests are measured, how to measure them, and the basis of the science behind these techniques. Professor Phil West has been a forest scientist for over 30 years. His research speciality is the mathematical modelling of forest growth behaviour. He is presently a forestry consultant and teaches forest measurement in the forestry school of Southern Cross University in northern New South Wales, Australia.
 

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Содержание

11 Scope of this Book
1
Scale of Measurement
3
21 Measuring Things
5
Accuracy Bias and Precision
6
221 Accuracy
7
222 Bias
8
223 Precision
9
Bias Precision and the Value of Measurements
10
Basal Area
71
Plot Measurement
72
Practicalities of Point Sampling
75
Stocking Density
78
Quadratic Mean Diameter
79
Measuring Dominant Height
80
Site Productive Capacity
81
89 Volume
85

31 Basis of Stem Diameter Measurement
13
Stem Crosssectional Shape
14
Measuring Stem Diameter
15
Tree Irregularities and Stem Diameter
17
Bark Thickness
18
41 Basis of Height Measurement
19
Height by Direct Methods
20
Height by Geometric Methods
23
Height of Leaning Trees
24
51 Reasons for Volume Measurement
27
Volume by Xylometry
28
Sectional Volume Formulae
29
Tree Stem Shape
30
Sectional Measurement of Felled Trees
32
Sectional Measurement of Standing Trees
33
Volume by Importance or Centroid Sampling
34
61 Principles
39
Stem Volume Functions
40
Volume Estimated from Diameter Height and Taper
44
Merchantable Stem Volume
45
Taper Functions
46
Examples of Taper Functions
47
Using Taper Functions
50
Developing Stem Volume and Taper Functions
54
71 Reasons for Biomass Measurement
57
Biomass by Direct Measurement
58
Branches and Foliage
59
722 Stems
60
Carbon Content of Biomass
61
Biomass Estimation Functions
62
Allometric Functions
63
Root Biomass Functions
64
Leaf Biomass Functions
65
Fineroot Biomass Functions
67
81 Stands and Why they are Measured
69
Measurements in Stands
70
Point Sampling
87
810 Biomass
88
91 Forest Inventory and Sampling
93
Subjective Versus Objective Sample Selection
94
Population Statistics
95
Variance and Confidence Limits
96
101 Sampling Techniques and their Efficiency
103
Sampling with Varying Probability of Selection
104
Probability Proportional to Size
105
Probability Proportional to Prediction
109
Stratified Random Sampling
112
Modelbased Sampling
114
Choosing the Sampling Technique
118
111 Objectives
121
Stratification
122
Forest Area
123
Conduct of the Inventory
124
Fixedarea Plot and Point Sampling
126
117 Measuring Plots
127
1171 Shape
128
1173 Size
129
1174 Edge Plots
130
118 Conclusion
131
121 Mapping
133
Survey Example
134
Calculating the Survey Results
136
Plotting the Surveyed Area as Part of a Map
141
Area of a Surveyed Region
142
Global Positioning System
144
References
147
Appendix 1 Glossary
153
Appendix 2 Conversion Factors
159
Appendix 3 The Greek Alphabet
161
Appendix 4 Basic Trigonometry
163
Index
165
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Growing Plantation Forests
Phil West
Ограниченный просмотр - 2006

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