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quadri-, and other color processes, of steel and copper engraving, of photogravure, and of reproduction by the gelatin process, is much greater than that of reproduction by zincography or half-tone process, but, excepting colorlithography and engraving on steel or copper, generally less than that charged for engraving on wood.

If an author wishes to guard against the copying, by unscrupulous persons, of the illustrations which embellish his book, it is necessary for him to secure a copyright upon them. The general copyright which an author or a publisher secures to protect the contents of a book, while it is understood to protect everything within the covers of that book, does not always do so, for some jurists hold that, according to the letter of the law, illustrations that are bound-in with a book do not constitute an integral part of that book, and that, therefore, if protection is required for same, each must be copyrighted separately. As a matter of fact, the law makes no provision for such cases, and is subject to the personal interpretation of the judges. This is a most unsatisfactory condition of affairs, and in view of it authors wishing to secure the contents of their works from piracy or plagiarism, in cases where separate illustrations, maps, or other designs or

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devices are given in their books, should copyright each one separately, and print the fact that this has been done on each separate subject. For further information, see the chapter entitled “How to Secure a Copyright."

XV

ON SUBMITTING MANUSCRIPTS FOR

PUBLICATION

CHOOSING A PUBLISHER

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THERE are several considerations of which an author must take cognizance before he makes arrangements for the publication of his manuscript. Above all things, he should take care to associate himself only with a reputable house, and beware of the many so-called publishing "companies" with high-sounding names which are conducted by sharks, whose purpose is only to prey upon the unwary.

He should avoid the mushroom firms—firms that spring up overnight, and blazon their way with pyrotechnic set-pieces of advertising, for which they pay a high price for the sake of impressing the public with their importance. Firms like these flash in the pan. They are not unlike a barrel of gunpowder to which a light has been set ; they flash brilliantly, and for a little while make a great noise; then, when all is over, nothing remains but ashes and deathlike silence.

To find out the financial standing of a publishing house is a comparatively easy matter. It can be done by applying for a report from any of the commercial agencies, or by making inquiries through one's bankers, or through friends; for if a firm is reputable, the world at large usually knows it. The light of a publisher known for fair dealing can not be hidden under a bushel.

Beware of the sharks, for they write very flattering reports of authors' works - reports so unctuous that the writers hope to beguile their victims with them. One may be fascinated so easily with the charming manner of Mr. Shark and the cordial welcome he extends that the signing of a contract with him is a pleasure. But beware of the awakening! The terms, the full significance of which the unfortunate author sometimes learns too late, may land him into debt with Messrs. Shark & Company for several hundreds of dollars for publishing his book, of which, as is often the case, very few copies have been sold besides those sold with the help of the author.

THE CHARACTER OF THE MANUSCRIPT

Among other things which the author must consider, the first is: What is the character of his manuscript? Is it a work of reference, one of scientific research, or a theological treatise ? Per

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haps it is a novel, historic or purely romantic, or a biography, or reminiscence? It may be a work of value as an educative medium, as a history or geography, or a treatise on some one other branch of learning. Therefore, authors contemplating the submitting of manuscripts, before seeking a publisher, should first inform themselves of the class of publications he issues. The author will find, as a general rule, that the publisher of theological books will seldom undertake the production of novels other than of a religious character, or such as teach some moral lesson, unless they are of exceptional merit. The man who makes a practise of issuing books of reference is not likely to enter the field of frivolity, which supplies the light summer reading sought eagerly by the giddy throng. He whose catalog bristles with titles of medical treatises or surgical works, and their different branches, would hesitate to embark in works of a theological character.

So the author should make a judicious and not an impulsive selection in choosing the man to whom he intends to submit his work. If he does this he may relieve himself of the unpleasant experience of having his manuscript rejected, for no other reason than it does not fit with the class of books issued by the publisher to whom it has been submitted. In some respects a publish

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