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dicating the position of the illustrations is to number one set of the picture-proofs consecutively, and place numbers corresponding to them on the margins of the galley-proofs. These corresponding numbers must be set alongside of the paragraphs to which the illustrations respectively belong; but the first method is preferable, as eliminating the possibility of error on the part of the maker-up. The duplicate proof the author should hold for reference, or as a check on the printer, to see that his instructions to him have been carried out.

Care should be taken to designate whether illustrations are to be centered or set in toward either of the margins. Unless precautions are taken to indicate this clearly, the maker-up may place the cut on the wrong side of the page, or may use his discretion and place it where he thinks it fits best. The author should always bear in mind that the printer's only means of identifying an illustration is the impression of it which he supplies.

In placing illustrations that are to be printed with the text of a book, it is desirable to scatter them through the volume instead of grouping them together. Full-page illustrations should be so arranged as to be printed on recto pages, where they will be more easily seen. When a fullpage illustration is printed lengthwise, the picture should be turned outward in such manner that the legend relating to it appears on the outside margin, and not on the inner margin of the page, as was the practise formerly. If printed in this way not only is the illustration more easily seen but the legend is more easily read, and the binding of the book is not subjected to that backbreaking process which was necessary when pictures were turned inward, and their legends were printed on the inner margins.

The transposition of illustrations from one part of a book to another, or from one side of a page to another, is one of the most costly processes in the making up of type into pages, and sometimes causes the overrunning of a great deal of matter. This work is charged for as time-work, and involves heavy expense. Authors who desire to keep the cost of correcting their work down to a minimum should bear these facts constantly in mind.

No book that is to be illustrated can be made into pages until the blocks on which the illustrations have been engraved are supplied, and their respective places indicated on the galley-proofs. Sometimes it happens that, through unforeseen circumstances, the block of an illustration is delayed. In such cases, when neither the author nor the publisher wish to delay the making up of the pages, the exact size of the belated block is sent to the printer, who, if instructed to do so, can leave sufficient space in the page to allow for it and for its legend, to be set in later, and proceed with his work.

Every book that is illustrated should contain a list of the illustrations ; this list usually follows the table of contents. To prevent mistakes, the list should be prepared from the plate-proofs of the book. It may be prepared in two ways: alphabetically (the plan usually followed with reference books), or in the order in which the illustrations occur—this being the plan usually adopted with general literature.

There are several methods by which illustrations can be reproduced. The three most popular, applied to illustrations to be printed in black and white, are the zinc etching, made from a drawing and etched on a zinc plate ; the halftone illustration, which can be reproduced from a photograph, wash-drawing, etc., is etched by mechanical process, chiefly on copper, as this is productive of best results (half-tone work in newspaper offices is generally etched on zinc), and engraving on wood, a process by which the design required is either drawn or photographed on boxwood and engraved by hand.

This is

the most expensive of the three methods, and the result depends largely on the skill of the engraver. Illustrations are also reproduced occasionally in color by lithography or by other different color processes which, by the combining of certain colors and tints, produce remarkable results.

In deciding the class of illustration to be used, an author will find it to his advantage to consult his publisher, and should be guided, in a great measure, by his advice. The printing of illustrations in the text of a book involves the using of special kinds of paper best suited to bringing out the finest impression that can be obtained from a cut. Engravers invariably print on a coated paper which has a high finish, with a very black ink, so as to bring out the lines with the sharpness and brilliancy of the original—a result that can not always be obtained from cuts made by the half-tone process. Notwithstanding this objection, the greater part of the illustrations printed in books and periodicals nowadays are produced by this process.

In considering the cost of the different processes for reproducing illustrations to be printed in black and white, the author should bear in mind that an illustration engraved on wood which costs one hundred dollars to produce can be made by half-tone process for ten dollars, and by zincography for about four dollars. But all designs are not suited to the same process of reproduction, and here again the author will do well to heed his publisher's advice. Colorprinting is much more costly, as each color requires a separate printing, whether it be done by lithographic or other process. Engraving on steel or copper, which seems to have passed out of popular favor for book illustrating, is now rarely used, except in the reproduction of portraits or of masterpieces of art. Photogravure, or the process of producing an intaglio plate for printing, and the gelatin process, in which a negative is made on a gelatin film which is used for printing or for making a relief printing-plate, have some vogue, but can be used only on papers of special make, and as a means for illustrating books are usually employed only where the picture is to occupy a full page and is to be set into the book by the binder as an inset. When a number of these have to be inserted in a book, the publisher furnishes his binder with a dummy showing the place of insertion for each inset illustration; this the binder must have before the different signatures of the book are collated for sewing and binding

The cost of color-lithography, of the tri-,

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