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based on the measure of the small or lower-case letters of the complete alphabet. In establishing this standard the em quads used were of the same size as the type measured :

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The differences in printing types, as to body or size, are shown in the list below :

POINT SIZES.
3t-point.
4 or 47-point
5-point .
54-point
6-point.
1-point.
8-point.
9-point.
10-point

OLD NAMES
Brilliant
Diamond
Pearl
Agate or Ruby (English name)
Nonpareil
Minion
Brevier
Bourgeois

Long Primer
Small Pica
Pica
English
Great Primer

11-point

.

12-point

14 point

18-point

Differences in width render the type fat or lean, or, if quite marked, extended or condensed; differences in face are almost endless.

Among other sizes and names of type not noted in the above list are lsior, emerald or minionette, ruby, canon, Columbian, and paragon. In the system now passing into disuse, sizes of type larger than four-line pica are usually conformed to a pica standard and named by the multiple contained as, 20-line, 30-line, or 40-line pica. Other sizes are indicated by multiples of sizes above pica-as, double English, double great primer.

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XI

HOW TO COMPUTE THE SPACE THAT A

MANUSCRIPT WILL OCCUPY

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TO ASCERTAIN the space which a given number of words will occupy, the following rule will be found to be very reliable :

Find the number of "points" to the length of line you desire, and also the depth of the page. There are 72"points" to the inch, either way. Thus, if a line is to be 3 inches in length, there will be 216 "points" in that line. Divide this by the number of points in the body of the type in which the matter is to be set. For instance, if it is 10-point (long primer), there will be 21.6 ems to the line ; 8-point (brevier), 27 ems, and 60 on through all the points. If the length of a page be 5 inches, then there would be 360 "points" in that length, or 36 ems 10-point; 45 ems 8-point, and so on through all the points. Now the square of that for 10-point would be 21.6 X 36 == 777.6 ems (27 X 45 = 1215 for 8-point).

Now divide either product by 3, and you have the approximate number of words to the page, or 259 10-point, 405 8-point, solid. If the matter is to be leaded, add to depth measurement only the number of points which the lead will occupy (ordinary leads are 2-point). Thus, in the foregoing examples, the length of page being 360 points, add 2 points for leading and the 10-point becomes 12, while the 8-point becomes 10, and so on. Hence, in the 10-point there would be but 30 lines, while in the 8-point there would be but 36 lines, or figured out: 21.6 X 30 +3= 216 words 10-point; 27 X 36 + 3

324 8-point words to page leaded with 2-point leads.

The following table of the number of words to the square inch that can be set in various sizes of type will be found useful in averaging the total number of pages which a manuscript will make when set solid :

Number

of Words 5-point, or Pearl

69 5%-point, or Agate

65
6-point, or Nonpareil

47
7-point, or Minion.
8-point, or Breyier
9-point, or Bourgeois .
10-point, or Long Primer .
II-point, or Small Pica
12-point, or Pica
14-point, or English
18-point, or Great Primer
24-point, or Double Pica ,

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28
21
17
14
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7
4

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XII

NAMES AND SIZES OF PAPER FOR

WRITING AND PRINTING

The common sizes of paper known by name in trade use are given in the following table as nearly as possible, the dimensions (in inches) being subject to material variation. The word folio accompanying the name of any size of paper usually means folded once, or as it is when put up into quires; as, crown folio is the crown size folded once, apparently reducing the area onehalf. When folded twice a sheet is termed a quarto, or 4to; three times, octavo, or 8vo; four times, sexto-decimo (rarely used: commonly called 16mo); five times, a 32mo; folded three times with a quarto offcut set in, a duodecimo or izmo four times with an octavo offcut set in, a 24mo.

The different varieties of writing-papers are classified as ledger, bond, linen (of different makes-as, Old English, Japanese, etc.), and flat, each paper-maker designating the different qualities by trade-mark names.

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