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compositor to be conveniently written in the margin of the proof, “Out; see copy" is written, and the place for insertion indicated as shown. Other marks used will prove practically selfexplaining by reference to the corrected proofsheet that follows.
To indicate that matter set is required in a bolder face of type than that in which it is printed, underline the matter and write “boldfaced ”
or “ full-faced” in the margin of the proof.
estimate. We have a pitying stram o ender compassion, for
lyceum system, before it undertook to ineddle with polit
ical duties or angry and dangerous questions of ethics ;
wio busy men back to books, teaching a little science,
hoog repeating some tale of foreign travel, or painting
some great representative chefacter, the symbol of / teau bout his age. I think I can claim a purpose beyond colecturables
moment, amusement in this glance at casts civilization. flatarey
We seem to imagine that, whether knowledge will
to have begun, the era of light. In other words, we overy are all running, with a fourthfday/oJuly spirit of self. I am often reminded' of the
german whom the cap
and therefore it can 1
be no waste of time, with an audience in such a mood,
I might despair of curjóg the habit of boasting, but I
Wendell Phillips. s. caps
revised by Mr. Phillips, and is perfect la izan loro sode Pression Burns the best report in existface.
lout: See cofy.
THE LOST ARTS.' Ladies and Gentlemen :
I am to talk to you to-night about “The Lost Arts"a lecture which has grown under my hand year after year, and which belongs to that first phase of the lyceum system, before it undertook to meddle with political duties or dangerous and angry questions of ethics ; when it was merely an academic institution, trying to win busy men back to books, teaching a little science, or repeating some tale of foreign travel, or painting some great representative character, the symbol of his age. I think I can claim a purpose beyond a moment's amusement in this glance at early civilization.
I, perhaps, might venture to claim that it was a medicine for what is the most objectionable feature of our national character ; and that is self.conceit, -an undue appreciation of ourselves, an exaggerated estimate of our achievements, of our inventions, of our contributions to popular comfort, and of our place, in fact, in the great procession of the ages. We seem to imagine that, whether knowledge will die with us, or not, it certainly began with us. We have a pitying' estimate, a tender compassion, for the narrowness, ignorance, and darkness of the bygone ages. We seem to ourselves not only to monopolize, but to have begun, the era of light. In other words, we are all running over with a fourth-day-of-July spirit of self-content. I am often reminded of the German whom the English poet Coleridge met at Frankfort. He always took off his hat with profound respect when he ventured to speak of himself. It seems to me, the American people might be painted in the chronic attitude of taking off its hat to itself; and therefore it can be no waste of time, with an audience in such a mood, to take their eyes for a moment from the present civilization, and guide them back to that earliest possible era that history describes for us, if it were only for the purpose of asking whether we boast on the right line. I might de spair of curing the habit of boasting, but I might direct it better!
WENDELL PHILLIPS. This lecture was a ver revised by Mr. Phillips, and is imperfect la form and expression. But it is the best report in existence.
SIZES OF TYPES, WITH NOTES ON
THE invention of movable types is often popularly referred to as the invention of printing, since it made cheap printing possible. In some modern (so called) typesetting-machines the individual type is dispensed with, and the line becomes the movable unit.
Metal types are cast in a mold, and, according to the point system, now generally adopted, are .918 of an inch in height. They are usually nicked on the lower side, for the convenience of the compositor, or sometimes on two sides, for distribution by a mechanical distributor. Types of large size, as for poster-printing, are made of close-grained wood-as, apple, maple, boxwood, etc.—the end of the grain being placed upward, and subjected to pressure to give it a finish. Rubber types are much in use for hand-stamps, etc., and usually have a metal body half an inch or less in length, and a soft rubber face. Metal type is sometimes copper-faced by electrodeposition, to add to its wearing qualities. Type is high-spaced where shoulder-high spaces are used for electrotyping, otherwise low-spaced.
In typography the unit of measurement is determined by the em quad, the square of the body of any size of type, and is used in estimating the cost of composition, the wages of typesetters, and the sizes of pages. It is used also to designate the length of dashes or spaces, etc.
Formerly it was the practise of each typefounder to establish a standard of his own for the different classes of type he cast, and master printers who purchased fonts from different typefounders found to their dismay that the type of one foundry would not justify with that of another, altho it was designated by the same name in the trade. The inconvenience which this caused led to the devising of a new system by which types cast by different foundries were made interchangeable. This new system is commonly known as the Point System, and is a standard system of sizes (see below) for type-bodies, 996 points of which are equal to 35 centimeters, and one point is .0138 inch, as adopted by the Typefounders Association of the United States. Under this system the old names of type-bodies -as, nonpareil (now 6-point), bourgeois (now 9-point), etc.—are in disuse.
The International Typographical Union, which regulates the affairs of the printers' craft, has adopted the following type standard, which is