Lapas attēli

require transliteration into Roman characters should represent the principal sounds of the word as pronounced in the native tongue.

The spellings of the board have been adopted by the editor of the “ Standard Dictionary."

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NO AUTHOR can afford to neglect this feature in his work. For this reason the following suggestions are offered for his guidance.

To indicate capital letters in a manuscript, draw three parallel lines beneath them. (For example, see section on PROOF-READING, page 59.)

The systematic application of the following rules will assure correct capitalization:

1. Capitalize the initial letter (1) of the first word of every complete sentence; (2) of the first word of every distinct clause separately paragraphed or numbered; (3) of every proper name; (4) of every word derived from a proper name; (5) of the first word and of the chief other words in the titles of books, pictures, plays, or publications ; (6) of the first word and other chief words in subtitles or subdivisions of books written in two or more parts.

2. Capitalize all the names of the Deity-e.g., the Almighty, Creator, Father, God, Jahveh, Jehovah, Savior.

" but

God is capitalized only when the word refers to the Deity; in its other senses it takes a small initial letter.

Heaven takes a capital initial when it denotes the Supreme Being and a small letter when used in any of its many other meanings. This may have been due to the influence of the Authorized Version of the Bible on printing. Therein the translators commonly used small letters. In Genesis 1:2, the word is written“ heaven, in the same chapter (verse 8) we find “ And God called the firmament Heaven”-the capital letter was used here to designate the sky and all the depth of space beyond the surface of the earth as distinguished from the abode of man.

3. Write the personal pronoun in the first person singular a capital-as, "Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord; I will repay.”

4. Capitalize the initial letter of words of special importance or others specifically applied, as the family names or type genuses of animal or of plant life.

5. Write the initial letter of the first word of every line of verse a capital-e.g.:

"My love to those that I love;
My love to those that love me.
My love to those that love those that I love,
And to those that love those that love me.”

6. Capitalize the initial letter of the first word of a complete example or direct quotation-e.g.:

“Honesty is the best policy." 7. Capitalize the initial letters of the days of the week and month, festivals, holy days, and days of historic significance.

8. Capitalize prefixes, as D’, Da, De, Di, Van, Von, when not preceded by a given name.

If a given name precedes the surname, the first letter of the prefix should be a small one. However, this rule is not always strictly adhered to.

9. Capitalize the initial letter of names of political or special significance—as, the Middle Ages, the Elizabethan Period, the Great Reformation, Democrat, Republican, Conservative, Liberal, Nationalist, Church, State, etc.

10. Capitalize the initial letter of all titles of dignity—as, President, Chief Justice, Bishop, Senator, etc., when these precede the surnames of dignitaries.

11. Capitalize the initial letters of all geographic names--as, Bermuda, Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, North River, Rocky Mountains.

Note: The seasons of the year and the words earth, sun, and moon, being regarded as nouns, are not written with initial capital letters. The names of planets and stars should be written with capital initial letters, as they stand for personifications of certain mythical deities.




The use of the punctuation-marks or points for the purpose of clearly showing the sense or relation of words is comparatively recent. In ancient writings words were run together successively without break or pause-mark. Not until Aldus Manutius, who flourished in the fifteenth century, and evolved the main features of our system and used them in his books, was attention given to a subject of first importance so far as writing and printing are concerned.

Few, indeed, are the persons who to-day would endorse the view on the subject of punctuation entertained by Blair and expressed by him in his “Rhetoric” (p. 121): “It is in vain to propose by arbitrary punctuation to amend the defects of a sentence, to correct its ambiguity, or to prevent its confusion." The absurdity of this contention may be aptly illustrated by the following riddle from Halliwell's “ Nursery Rhymes”:

“Every lady in this land

Has twenty nails upon each hand
Five and twenty on hands and feet
All this is true without deceit.”

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