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(1) Drop final “e” from words ending in “ise” when the “i” is short, as in anis(e, practis(e, premis(e, treatis(e, etc.
(2) Retain final "e" when the “i” is long, as in wise, etc.
Drop “a” from “ea" having the short sound of "e" as in feather, leather, etc.
(1) Drop final “e” from words ending in “ve” when ihe preceding vowel has its common short sound, as in repulsiv(e, talkativ(e, etc., or is expressed by two letters, as in griev(e, groov(e, carv(e, "r" counting with the vowels.
(2) Retain final "e" when the preceding vowel is single and long, as in five, drive, etc.
Change the diagraph "ph" to "f" wherever it has the sound of “f," as in diphtheria (diftheria), phantom (fantom), telegraph (telegraf), photograph (fotograf), physic (fysic), naphtha (naftha), etc.
CHEMICAL TERMS The need of a reform in the spelling of chemical terms, which was generally admitted by the Section on Chemistry of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, led to the adoption by that body of certain rules affecting several classes of terms. These rules are as follows:
In terms ending in “-ide" drop the final "e"; write' chlorid,” not chloride'); "oxid," not "oxide"; "sulfid,” not "sulphide."
In terms ending in “-ine,” drop the final "e"; write “bromin,” not“ bromine”; chlorin," not "chlorine" ; " quinin," not "quinine."
EXCEPTION: The termination “-ine" is retained only in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons, according to Hoffman's grouping. Thus, write “butine," not "butin"; "hexine,” not “hexin," etc.
In harmony with the action of the Association for the Advancement of Science, the “Standard Dictionary” substitutes “f” for “ph" in "sulfur" and all its derivatives, and it follows the spellings of the Association in its vocabulary.
GEOGRAPHIC NAMES The United States government has appointed a permanent Board on Geographic Names, whose duty is to determine all unsettled questions concerning such names that arise in the Departments, and in the Government Printing Office. The decisions of this Board are to be accepted as standard authority by these Departments. A complete list of these spellings can be obtained at small cost by applying to the Public Printer, Washington, D. C.
The plan followed by the Board in disposing of any question brought before it is to refer it to its Executive Committee. This committee is charged with the thorough investigation of the question, is expected to consult the authorities with regard to it, and to make use of such assistance as it may find available elsewhere. Officers of the various Departments of the United States government are under instruction to afford this Board such assistance as may be proper to carry on its work. A résumé of such investigations as are made, together with a recommendation based on the results, is submitted to the Board at a regular meeting, and after discussion a decision is reached by vote.
While some persons, chartographers especially, have taken exception to the decision of this Board as regards certain names, no other list can be recommended as a reliable substitute.
1. The principles applied by the Board to geographic names in the United States may be summarized as follows:
(1) That spelling and pronunciation which is sanctioned by local usage should in general be adopted.
(2) Where names have been changed or corrupted, and such changes or corruptions have become established by local usage, it is not in general advisable to attempt to restore the original form.
(3) In cases where what was evidently originally the same word appears with various spellings sanctioned by local usage, when applied to different features, these various spellings should be regarded as in effect different names, and, as a rule, it is inadvisable to attempt to produce uniformity.
[ Clause 3, reproduced here, is taken verbatim from the Second Report of the U. S. Board on Geographic Names, p. 22.]
(4) Where a choice is offered between two or more names for the same place or locality, all sanctioned by local usage, that which is most appropriate and euphonious should be adopted.
(5) The possessive form should be avoided whenever it can be done without destroying the euphony of the name or changing its descriptive application. (6) In names ending in “burgh
"'burgh" the final “h” should be dropped.
(7) Names ending in "borough” should be abbreviated to “boro."
(8) The word “center," as a part of a name, should be spelled as above, and not "centre.”
(9) The use of hyphens in connecting parts of names should be discontinued.
(10) The letters “C. H.” (Court House) appended to the names of county seats should be omitted.
(11) In the case of names consisting of more than one word it is desirable to combine them into one word.
(12) It is desirable to avoid the use of diacritic characters.
(13) It is desirable to avoid the use of the words “ city” and “town" as parts of names.
2. The principles applied to the geographic names of foreign countries are :
(1) Geographic names in countries that use Roman characters should be rendered in the form adopted by the country having jurisdiction, except where there are English equivalents already fixed by usage. In cases where the English equivalent is so different from the local form that the identity of the latter with the former might not be recognized, the English form should be adopted, but both forms may be given.
(2) The spelling of geographic names that