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II. Authors who treat with printers direct will find it necessary to keep a record of the folios of manuscript delivered and returned, with the dates of each transaction. Publishers always undertake this work, which is usually done by a member of the clerical staff. The duties involved may be briefly summarized as follows:

(1) Forwarding the manuscript to the printer with such instructions as may be needed concerning number of proofs required, or any other necessary directions, and taking note of the date of despatch.

(2) Receiving from the printer as much of the manuscript as has been set, together with galleyproofs for correction. When a batch of copy is returned, the numbers of the folios are to be checked and entered on the record, together with the numbers of all galleys that accompany it. Every galley-proof of printed matter bears a number written or set at the top.

(3) In forwarding galley-proofs to the author, the manuscript corresponding to the matter in type should also be despatched to him, and should be returned by him with the corrected proof. A record of folios and dates of forwarding and returning should be carefully kept.

(4) Once received, the author's proofs are usually transmitted to the printer, who, unless the corrections are exceptionally numerous, proceeds to make up the printed matter into page form. This labor done, the printer sends out to the publisher proofs in page form; these are accompanied by the corrected galley-proofs, so that they may be forwarded to the author, to enable him to verify whether or not the corrections he desires have been made.

(5) After having revised the printed matter sent him, the author returns same to the publisher, whose clerk transmits it in turn to the printer for casting. Once corrected, the printer sends the type-pages to his foundry, with instructions to make electrotype plates of them, so as to release the type for further use. This being done, the plates are ready for printing.

By some of the more modern methods of composition, as by typesetting-machine, this process of electrotyping is done as the work proceeds. These methods have certain disadvantages, such as when the corrections are heavy in number; this often necessitates the cancelling of matter set and the resetting of entire paragraphs.

(6) Corrections may be made in the electrotype plate if absolutely necessary; but these should generally be avoided, as they are injurious to the plate itself, weakening it, and, in cases where large editions are printed, often causing the plate to break, thereby necessitating the resetting of the entire page. Therefore, all corrections in plate should be avoided.

Every author should bear in mind that the printer pays for the correcting of all errors made by his men, but that for all changes marked on a proof which are deviations from the original manuscript the author must pay at a fixed rate per hour. The time taken to make what may seem a trivial correction is often much longer than the author may expect, through its causing the overrunning of type, the remaking-up of a page, or other additional work. (See also PROOFREADING.)

II

ORTHOGRAPHY

“THE orthography of our language," says Goold Brown,' “is attended with much uncertainty and perplexity; many words are variously spelled by the best scholars, and many others are not usually written according to the analogy of similar words.” The international copyright law has worked a curious change in the orthography of some American books.

Until lately American publishers used the shorter and simpler form of such words as armor,” “honor," “labor," omitting the “u, common to English spelling; in words like "civilize," "utilize,' etc., the American form "ize" displaced the British “ise.” Now, however, some American publishers have gone back to the old-fashioned forms so tenaciously cherished by the British. The reason for this is found in the fact that American books have invaded England. No longer can American publishers be twitted with Sydney Smith's caustic query: 'In the four quarters of the globe, who reads an American book?" The Briton no longer objects to reading it-in fact, he looks for it; but prefers the orthography so dear to his conservative heart. The result is that some publishers have deemed it necessary, in order to sell American books in England, to spell in the British way.

i The Institutes of English Grammar, p. 32.

On account of this the author, before he commences to write, should determine for himself the authority on spelling he intends to follow. Sometimes, however, the matter is left to the discretion of the publisher.

In recent years great strides have been made, especially in the United States, toward simplifying the spelling of words. Dr. I. K. Funk, in his magnum opus, the “Standard Dictionary," states that “in its effort to help in simplifying the spelling of words this dictionary is conservative, and yet aggressively positive along the lines of reform agreed upon almost unanimously by the leading philologists.” So here is a work with the preponderance of scholarship in its favor that may be followed as a reliable guide in all matters of disputed spelling.

As has already been said, the modern tendency is toward the simplifying of orthography. To this end, the National Educational Association has recently adopted simplified forms for spelling certain words, but it has not yet followed the

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