Oleoresin Production: A Microscopic Study of the Effects Produced on the Woody Tissues of Southern Pines by Different Methods of Turpentining

Pirmais vāks
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1922 - 46 lappuses

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32. lappuse - ... as if a very narrow chipping should successfully accomplish this purpose. It is obvious that a high chipping cuts away the most intensely stimulated and presumably the most responsive tissue, especially for gum production, in the tree. It is as if a whole organized battery of the tree's forces were wiped out at each stroke of the hack and a new organization had to be mustered afresh in the attempt to respond to the new condition. After a number of such responses, the results of which are cut...
4. lappuse - gum turpentine " distilled from oleoresin is distinguished from " wood turpentine," which is obtained from the steam or destructive distillation of the resinous heartwood of stumps or dead or down timber. Fresh gum spirits of turpentine distilled from the southern pines of the United States consists of several similar or closely related compounds known as terpenes, together with small and varying quantities of oxidized derivatives thereof.8 The empirical formula of the terpenes is C10H16, indicating...
29. lappuse - ... crystallization and oxidation of the gum. The question of the width of the cut necessary to reopen these ducts resolves itself simply into a determination of the extent of this stoppage. It was intended to reduce by one-half the width of the cut in chipping this crop, but this was found to be impracticable. In spite of continued urging and the closest supervision, the chippers invariably made the cut wider than was desired. This fact is undoubtedly to be ascribed to the character of the free...
2. lappuse - It was also used, for example, as a surface coating for altars and doors or as a sizing or lining for clay storage jars, used as containers for grain and other supplies.
10. lappuse - ... during the winter months, and in the late winter the trees are "cornered," giving wounded surfaces as shown in Plate III. The trees then usually stand for several weeks without further wounding. Immediately after cornering the formation of secondary resin ducts begins at all points of the cut (fig. 8). Later, when the tree is chipped, these secondary ducts are opened along the full length of the cut (fig. 9), and a good yield is consequently at once obtained. But in placing the cups during the...
19. lappuse - In the second year in all crops there was some decrease in total yield. The 1917 comparisons, using the total 1916 yields from a crop as 100 per cent or the criterion for judging the relative yield of that crop, showed that the greatest decrease occurred in the standard tract. (Table 5.) DOUBLE CHIPPING. The special feature of this method, used for two years on this area at Columbia, Miss., was that the streak was cut at four-day intervals instead of only once each seven days.
41. lappuse - The proper placing of faces with reference to the size and conformation of the tree, and the maintenance of bark bars of sufficient width between faces, are matters of fundamental importance, which too often are neglected in practice. These matters if not cared for involve waste and loss throughout the operation. The fact that it is unprofitable to turpentine too small trees, at least by present commercial methods, has been demonstrated beyond question.
4. lappuse - III, figure 2. Longleaf pine as found in the southern United States of America is the species chiefly discussed and illustrated in the following pages as the typical producer of American naval stores. Botanically, it is classed in the division of the Spermatophyta, the subdivision of the Gymnospermae, the order Coniferales, and family Pinaceae. The structure of the wood, the principal subject of this research, as seen with the aid of the...
2. lappuse - Institute. March, 1916. eter, and the preservation of the general health of the tree are considerations of fundamental importance. This is especially true with reference to the methods that are to be used in the future for turpentining smaller, second-growth trees. The need for wider knowledge and the practice of better methods is imperative in the United States, in order that this important and exceptional opportunity for the production...
26. lappuse - ... the conditions found in the round timber. In the case of the heavy chipping, however, the marked reduction occurring during the three years of turpentining is very apparent, although some allowance must be made for the fact that the greatest reductions in ring width after turpentining generally occurred in the trees with very wide rings, hence at least a part of the reduction noted might be attributed to this...

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