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which the patentee prefers, for manufacturing the finer descriptions of wool and hair. Fig. 9, represents, in vertical section, one arrangement of machinery, for manufacturing a coarser material. The feeding apparatus a, and cylinder b, are of the same construction as the ordinary devil, the feed-rollers and apron being actuated in the usual way; but the cylinder has a greater number of steel teeth. There is, however, no grating under this cylinder, but a large opening or box with an end or stop at c, is provided, for catching or retaining all the unopened locks of material or extraneous matter which fall, by gravity, into it. d, is a woven wire gauze, or perforated metal cylinder of large dimensions, say three feet in diameter.
It will be seen, by reference to fig. 9, that only the upper half of the cylinder d, is exposed to the draught of the toothed cylinder b; and upon this part of the cylinder, the fibres of wool or other materials are received; the lower half is open for the escape of the air through the floor into the room e, below, which is constructed of lattice-work.
The surface of the perforated cylinder d, is made to revolve in the direction of the arrow, at the rate of about five or six feet per minute; and the flow of the material having formed a bat of sufficient thickness thereon, (governed by the amount of feed,) it is received between the two fluted rollers f, f, the upper one being weighted upon the lower, and passed onwards between the two other endless aprons g, g. Of these aprons, the lower one revolves around the two end rollers h, and i, and consequently over the intermediate ones j, j,j,j,j, and the upper apron passes under the two rollers k, k, and up over the friction-rollers l, l. Three of the lower rollers, marked j, are enclosed by the pan m, for the purpose of admitting steam to the bat, during its passage between the two aprons, and for which purpose it is connected by a pipe, in communication with a steam-boiler.
A series of upright wooden beaters n, n, n, with smooth rounded ends at bottom, are supported in the frame-work 0, 0.
These beaters are divided, in a transverse direction to that of fig. 9, into six or more parts, and receive a small
quick perpendicular and falling motion by the tappet-shafts P, p, p, which are geared and revolve together, being connected with any convenient part of the machine, whereby to be set in motion. The quick alternating action of these beaters, aided by the steam and heat applied in this way to the bat, occasion it to be properly hardened and united, for producing a partly felted sheet, suitable for the succeed. ing operation of tight felting, in common with the bats produced by the previously-described machines for fine wools, by carding.
Fig. 10, represents, in section, another arrangement of machinery for manufacturing the coarser descriptions of goods. The operation of the machine is precisely similar to the last described, until the bat is formed, and has passed through the delivering rollers f, f; it is then received
upon the endless apron a, and passes in between the cylinder b, and the hardening rollers C, C, C. The cylinder is covered with an elastic cloth, and formed hollow, for the purpose of enabling steam to be passed in at one end, and the condensed water to be taken off at the other, similar to a common paper-drying cylinder, and receives its motion from the lower delivering roller f. The hardening rollers C, C, C, receive their motion either by a band passed over them and connected with any convenient part of the machine, or have toothed wheels upon their ends, taking into a large wheel upon the axis of the cylinder b, so that the inner surfaces of these rollers shall turn in the same direction as the surface of the cylinder, and with a similar velocity; during which revolution, the cylinder b, has a short quick alternating motion, communicated thereto by means of an excentric, mounted upon a side shaft.
A perforated pipe d, is connected with a reservoir of water, for supplying moisture to the covering upon the cylinder b, before the bat comes in contact with it at e. As the bat is liberated from either of the two last-described machines, it is wound upon a roller q, by friction of contact, precisely in the manner before mentioned in the
previous machines, and subjected to the operation of tight felting, in the apparatus above described, with reference to figs. 7 and 8.
The patentee further describes another mode of manufacturing goods upon this principle, according to which the operation of the tight felting-machine is unnecessary. Fig. 11, represents this arrangement. The bat, after having passed through the hardening machine, as before described, is in the act of winding around the roller y; another roller is placed above, upon which is wound a piece of smooth linen, cotton, or worsted cloth, previously wetted with a solution of soap. This linen, or other cloth, is wound up between the folds of the bat, as the roller revolves, and pressed firmly therewith, by means of a rod and weight, attached to the axle of the roller. When this is effected, the roller, upon which it has been wound, is withdrawn, and the bat is placed in a broad fulling stock, where it receives repeated blows or pressure, until it is sufciently hardened or felted to be unwound and taken out of the cloth.
The goods manufactured by any of the above processes, may be subjected to all the different processes of raising, shearing or cropping, boiling, pressing, &c., used by manu. facturers on the old system of spinning and weaving; but the patentee recommends the following machine, for raising the pile or nap of the finer qualities of felted goods.
Fig. 12, represents, in front elevation, the raising machine. a, b, are two cylinders, covered with wire cards, or teasles; c, d, are two other smaller cylinders, likewise covered with card teeth, to the arbor or shaft of one of which, the driving-pulley is attached at one end, and, by connecting wheels, this is made to actuate the other smaller cylinder. These cylinders, separately, are geared into the two larger raising cylinders, by toothed wheels, so arranged that the surfaces of the smaller ones revolve somewhat faster than those of the larger. Each pair of small and large cylinders are placed in slight contact with each other, and the teeth being set in different directions, the flock will be cleared as their surfaces revolve. e, e, e, are nearly the common arrangement of the regulating rollers, for conducting and taking away the cloth, as it is subjected to the action of the raising cylinders, and receive their motion
from the carrying-shaft in any of the usual modes; and a perforated water-pipe may be used for supplying a spray of water to the cloth under action, as in the common gig.
It will be perceived, that the raising and clearing-cylinders are diagonally situated with regard to the cloth under operation, by which arrangement the one is acting from list to list, in one direction, and the other from list to list, in the contrary direction.
The patentee claims, firstly, the application of a double apron or aprons, or compound aprons and rollers or cylinders, for the production of bats, as herein described, from the long sliver, and the different means, herein described, for keeping these aprons, together with the bats, in a smooth and even condition. Secondly, the extended sliver itself, as herein described, applied to forming a bat, by successive folds or layers, for the production of long or commercial ends of cloth, without spinning or weaving.
Thirdly, the improvements of the hardening machines,figs. 6, 9, and 10, by using the heaters, in addition to steam-pipes or pans, or in conjunction with a wetted apron, as herein before mentioned, and using travelling aprons, as herein before described.
Fourthly, the improved positions of the rollers in the felting-machine,-figs. 7 and 8,- for producing the double contact of each tier of rollers, and the combined reciprocating and progressive motion thereof, as well as the manner in which this motion is produced, as applied to the said felting-machine. Fifthly, the method of diagonal or cross felting, as effected by the feeding rollers, fig. 8, hereinbefore described. Sixthly, the method described at fig. 11, of producing long continuous fabrics of felt, in a fit state for the common fulling stocks.
Seventhly, with respect to the raising machine, fig. 12; the diagonal positions of the raising cylinders, as hereinbefore described, and particularly also the use of other or opposite revolving cylinders, whether covered with cards or any other material, for clearing raising cylinders whilst at work, as applied to cloth, manufactured by felting alone, or by the old method of spinning and weaving.
Lastly, the use of soap or saponaceous matters, dissolved in water, in conjunction with rollers, for assisting in the felting of fabrics, made without spinning and weaving, in contradistinction to acids or acidulated waters, which have heretofore been used for fabrics, depending for their union upon felting alone.--[Inrolled in the Petty Bag Office, August, 1840.)
To William Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chan
cery-lane, in the county of Middlesex, civil engineer, for certain improved machinery for manufacturing felts or felted cloths,-being a communication. — [Sealed 20th September, 1841.]
This improved machinery for manufacturing felts or felted cloths, (communicated to the patentee by a foreigner residing abroad,) consists in a novel arrangement of machinery for laying broad sheets of woollen and other animal sliver, one upon another, in diagonal directions, by which the fibres are made to cross each other, and to constitute a bat of loose wool of uniform thickness.
The object effected by this improvement, is the manufacture of what is termed felt, cloth, or fabric, produced without the processes of spinning and weaving, by laying the fibres of loose, scribbled, or carded wool, or other material, capable of felting, in a thick sheet or bat, which is afterwards hardened, and milled or fulled, and thereby converted into a felt or felt cloth.
The wool, or other fibrous material, having been prepared in the ordinary way, is to be delivered from the doffer of a carding engine, in the form of a broad continuous sheet of sliver, or to an endless creeping cloth, from whence it is conducted to the improved machinery, there to be laid in an endless bat, as above stated.
In Plate II, fig. 1, represents an elevation of the improved machinery, and fig. 2, is a horizontal view, as it would appear
when seen from above. A, A, represents the standards or frame-work of an ordi