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magna trepidatione agrestium populantur, tumultusque repens ex agris in urbem inlatus pro nuntio fuit. Excitus 6 Romulus, neque enim dilationem pati tam vicinum bellum poterat, exercitum educit, castra a Fidenis mille passuum locat. Ibi modico praesidio relicto egressus 7 omnibus copiis partem militum locis circa densa inter virgulta obscuris subsidere in insidiis iussit; cum parte maiore atque omni id quod quaerebat, tumultuoso et pugnae adequitando

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ipsis prope portis hostem excivit.

Fugae quoque, quae

simulanda erat, eadem equestris pugna causam minus mirabilem dedit. Et cum velut inter pugnae fugaeque 8 consilium trepidante equitatu pedes quoque referret

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alarm or any other cause.- agrestium: i.e. outside the towns. -tumultus, disorderly flight. pro nuntio: i.e. brought the first news, as there had been no declaration of war.

6. excitus: i.e. called out to action. The cities in those times were practically impregnable. The usual course of warfare was as in this case.

- neque enim, for naturally

not. This expression regularly introduces a statement which itself needs no argument, like our 'for you see,' 'for you know.'

7. egressus: from the camp, which was always strongly fortified. -omnibus copiis: as opposed to a mere detachment. Cf. the emphatic modico, which indicates that only a small guard was left behind.

locis, etc. the reading given here (Weissenborn's) is doubtful, but perhaps the best conjecture that can be made. The Mss. have densa obsita virgulta. - circa: to be taken as an adverb. Cf. Gr. 188, e. - - id quod, etc.: i.e. he succeeded in doing what he aimed at, namely, excivit. Cf. excitus, 6.

tumultuoso: i.e. the irregular action of skirmishing. - fugae: genitive. - simulanda, etc. i.e. was necessary to draw the enemy into the ambuscade. mirabilem: the flight would have seemed suspicious, but that sudden dashes and retreats were the regular cavalry tactics.

8. velut: apparently only belonging with inter consilium, though grammatically it might go with the abl. abs. This sentence is a good example of Livy's compression of many details into one complex sentence. Our logical analysis into main clause and successively subordinate ones is almost sure to miss the manner of presentation chosen by the author. The only way to read the sentence is as it is written, something like And as, while the cavalry were wavering between the two courses of battle and flight, the foot also began to draw back, the gates were suddenly seen crowded with men, and from them poured a host of the enemy; so, as the Roman line gave way, the zeal of the enemy to press on and pursue hurried them on to the place of the ambuscade.

LIVY.

[BOOK L gradum, plenis repente portis effusi hostes impulsa Romana acie studio instandi sequendique trahuntur ad 9 locum insidiarum. Inde subito exorti Romani transversam invadunt hostium aciem. Addunt pavorem mota e castris signa eorum qui in praesidio relicti fuerant. Ita

quam

multiplici terrore perculsi Fidenates prius Fidenates prius paena quent Romulus quique cum eo equites erant agerent

10 frenis equos, terga vertunt multoque effusius, quippe vera fuga, qui simulantes paulo ante secuti erant, oppiII dum repetebant. Non tamen eripuere se hosti: haerens in tergo Romanus, priusquam fores, portarum obicerentur, velut agmine uno inrumpit. ve

15

front

Belli Fidenatis contagione inritati Veientium animi et consanguinitate nam Fidenates quoque Etrusci - et quod ipsa propinquitas loci, si Romana

fuerunt

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The ultimate result takes the place of main clause; but the vivid details succeed each other in the order of time or natural presentation, and make a picture by a succession of strokes. This is Livy's special art or artless charm. He is always making pictures, and they must be observed as he draws them, stroke after stroke.

9. transversam, on the flank. The quality properly belongs adverbially to the Roman attack, but it is transferred in Latin to the enemy, for, of course, each was transversa to the other. - addunt pavorem, a new alarm is added by, etc. mota, etc.: i.e. the guard of the camp marches out in battle array, as if to re-enforce the Romans. — multiplici, from many quarters. — quique, etc., and the horsemen who were with him. These are mentioned because the movement of the horse would be quicker, and hence there is no need to speak of the foot.circumagerent, could wheel; cf. esset, 4 n, and see Gr. 327.

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CHAPS. 14, 15.]

troublesome

LIVY.

In

arma omnibus infesta finitimis essent, stimulabat. fines Romanos excucurrerunt populabundi magis quam iusti more belli. Itaque non castris positis, non exspec- 2 tato hostium exercitu, raptam ex agris praedam portantes Veios rediere. Romanus contra, postquam hostem in agris non invenit, dimicationi ultimae instructus intentusque Tiberim transit. Quem postquam castra ponere 3 et ad urbem accessurum Veientes audivere, obviam egressi, ut potius acie decernerent quam inclusi de tectis moenibusque dimicarent. Ibi viribus nulla arte adiutis 4 tantum veterani robore exercitus. rex Romanus vicit persecutusque fusos ad moenia hostes urbe valida muris ac situ ipso munita abstinuit; agros rediens vastat ulciscendi magis quam praedae studio. Eaque clade 5 haud minus quam adversa pugna subacti Veientes pacem petitum oratores Romam mittunt. Agri parte multatis in centum annos indutiae datae. here Thurs Haec ferme Romulo regnante domi militiaeque gesta, 6 quorum nihil absonum fidei divinae originis divinitatisque post mortem creditae fuit, non animus in regno avito reciperando, non condendae urbis consilium, non bello ac pace firmandae. Ab illo enim profecto viribus datis 7 tantum valuit ut in quadraginta deinde annos tutam

excucurrerunt: sc. Veientes, implied in Veientium animi.-iusti, regular, as opposed to predatory (populabundi).

2. raptam, etc., they stole booty, and. See note to 14. 8.- -hostem: i.e. they went out, but found nobody to fight with. - ultimae: i.e, decisive.-instructus: physically ready; intentus: morally prepared.

3. ponere, accessurum: notice the difference in tense. de, for, in defence of; properly, about.

4. arte, stratagem; such as he

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8 pacem haberet. Multitudini tamen gratior fuit quam patribus, longe ante alios acceptissimus militum animis; trecentosque armatos ad custodiam corporis, quos Celeres appellavit, non in bello solum, sed etiam in pace habuit.

16

His immortalibus editis operibus cum ad exercitum recensendum contionem in campo ad Caprae Paludem haberet, subito coorta tempestas cum magno fragore tonitribusque tam denso regem operuit nimbo ut conspectum eius contioni abstulerit; nec deinde in terris 2 Romulus fuit. Romana pubes sedato tandem pavore, postquam ex tam turbido die serena et tranquilla lux rediit, ubi vacuam sedem regiam vidit, etsi satis credebat patribus, qui proximi steterant, sublimem raptum procella, tamen velut orbitatis metu icta maestum aliquamdincana 3 diu silentium obtinuit. Deinde, a paucis initio facto, deum deo natum, regem parentemque urbis Romanae salvere universi Romulum iubent, pacem precibus expo

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CHAPS. 15, 16.]

LIVY.

47

preserve descendant.

scunt, uti volens propitius suam semper sospitet progeniem. Fuisse credo tum quoque aliquos qui discerptum 4 regem patrum manibus taciti arguerent: manavit enim haec quoque, sed perobscura fama; illam alteram admiratio viri et pavor praesens nobilitavit. famany

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Et consilio etiam unius hominis addita rei dicitur 5 fides. Namque Proculus Iulius, sollicita civitate desiderio regis et infensa patribus, gravis, ut traditur, quamvis magnae rei auctor in contionem prodit. 'Romulus,' 6 inquit Quirites, parens urbis huius, prima hodierna luce caelo repente delapsus se mihi obvium dedit. Cum perfusus horrore venerabundus adstitissem, petens precibus ut contra intueri fas esset, "Abi, nuntia" inquit 7 Romanis, caelestes ita velle, ut mea Roma caput orbis terrarum' sit; proinde rem militarem colant sciantque et ita posteris tradant, nullas opes humanas armis Romanis resistere posse." Haec' inquit 'locutus sublimis

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i.e. by an intentional device, as op-
posed to the causes just mentioned.
addita... fides, additional credit
was gained. sollicita: cf. orbi-
tatis metu, 2.
infensa: from
the suspicion above referred to.
gravis, weighty; i.e. his authority
carries weight. quamvis mag-
nae: i.e. however serious the mat-
ter he had to tell might be.

6. delapsus: the regular word
for such a descent. — adstitissem,

I stood before him. Cf. Gr. 279.

e. R. - contra, etc.: from a notion
that looking at the gods face to face
was presumptuous, and so impious.
7. ut
sit: this is an object
clause proceeding from purpose
(Gr. 331); the use of ita only
shows that the ut clause is coming,
without indicating whether it is re-
sult or purpose. proinde: the
usual illative word when an exhorta-
tion follows. posse: of course,

H

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