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NOTE.-It may reasonably be assumed that a large part of imports in languages other than English from non-English-speaking countries, e.g., West Germany, Japan, Italy, consisted of books, newspapers, and periodicals for natives of such countries or students of foreign languages. Such printed matter would not represent competition with the U.S. printing industry to any significant extent, as it could not or almost certainly never would be printed in the United States.

Source: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. [Extract from BDSA Quarterly Industry Report, July 1966, U.S. Department of Commerce) APPENDIX F. OFFICIAL COMMENT ON U.S. PRINTED EXPORTS, JULY 1966


(By William S. Lofquist) World demand for U.S. products of the printing and publishing industries pushed export sales to a record $61.6 million in the first quarter of 1966. On the basis of comparison with last year's first-quarter export-import figures, this growth rate indicates new highs for 1966 in almost every product category. Although total U.S. imports of all products for the first quarter 1966 increased at a faster rate than total U.S. exports (12 against 8 percent), the printing and publishing industries for the past several years have registered faster growing exports than imports, and the most recent statistics indicate 1966 should not interrupt the trend. Exports went up 27 percent in January-March over the 1965 quarter, reaching $61.6 million; imports rose 21 percent to $19.8 million.

Books represented the major product category in both exports and imports; book sales abroad totaled 43 percent of all exports, while purchases from abroad constituted 66 percent of all imports.

Canada continued to dominate the export market; its $25.4 million in purchases accounted for 41.3 percent of total U.S. exports. But a surge of printing and publishing sales to Japan, up $2.7 million or 233 percent over the first quarter of 1965, enabled that country to move up to third, behind the United Kingdom. Encyclopedia purchases represented approximately 75 percent of the $4.4 million of products exported to Japan.

The United Kingdom maintained its position as the top supplier to the United States, obtaining about 40 percent of the import market. Combined imports from the next five countries failed to surpass the U.K.'s record sales of $7.9 million. Canada and West Germany were second and third, respectively, with Japan moving up to fourth and Italy doubling its sales for the quarter to edge past the Netherlands for the fifth position.

Strong gains were made by practically all products in the export area. The $26.4 million in book exports were more than double the value of book imports received. Canada was the primary market for books, but Japan's $3.7 million in purchases took second place over the United Kingdom. Encyclopedia sales practically doubled, up $4.1 million over the 1965 first quarter, and Japan emerged as the largest buyer, with 37 percent of total purchases. Canada absorbed 15 percent and Australia about 10 percent of the market. A small but significant buyer of U.S. technical, scientific, and professional books was Communist China, with total quarterly purchases of $994.

Manifold business forms registered the greatest percentage gains, up 308 percent, but still accounted for less than 1 percent of total printed

matter exported; Canada, Australia, and the Bahamas were the largest purchasers, with 40 percent of total sales.

Printing plate exports led imports by a four-to-one ratio, with export sales approaching $1 million; Canada, with 36 percent, was the dominant buyer of this widely distributed product.

Labels and wrappers also displayed a remarkable export-to-import ratio; sales of over $1 million gave exports a 10-to-1 margin over imports, with Canada and the Philippine Republic accounting for one-third of total exports.

Imports showed general gains for the first quarter of 1966. Total book shipments to the United States went up 26 percent over first-quarter-1965 levels to $13 million, the bulk (51 percent) coming from the United Kingdom.

Other significant gains were shown in imports of printing plates, catalogs, pictorial prints, and maps, charts, and atlases. Declines were registered in eight product classifications, with fashion magazines and prayer books incurring the major losses.

U.S. imports from the communist-bloc countries totaled $296,366, well under 2 percent of all imported printing and publishing products. Included in this total were purchases of newspapers from the USSR amounting to $13,950.

[Extract from BDSA Quarterly Industry Report, October 1966, U.S. Department

of Commerce)

(By William S. Lofquist) Products of the printing and publishing industries exported from the United States reached a record $129 million in the first half of 1966, a jump of 21% over the comparable 1965 period. Foreign demand was especially strong in the book field, with $57 million in sales accounting for 44% of total printing and publishing exports. U.S. imports for the first half 1966 reached $42 million, a gain of 28% over 1965. Exports once again exceeded imports by a more than three-to-one margin. The new levels of both imports and exports point to the strongest trade year ever attained in printed matter.

Exports advanced steadily in all but four categories. Declines were recorded in bound periodicals and newspapers, transfers, picture postcards, and greeting cards. These products accounted for only 12% of total printing and publishing sales abroad in the first 6 months of 1966.

A desire by foreign countries to acquire and apply U.S. technological knowledge appears to be responsible for gains in several export categories. Technical, scientific, and professional books had sales of more than $9 million. Business service publications registered a stiff 84% rise over 1965. The highest percentage gain took place in manifold business forms—a 40% increase for the 6-month period brought sales close to a half-million dollars.

Printing plates and cuts barely missed the $2-million mark in sales to foreign markets. Canada was the primary purchaser with over $700,000, but Sweden, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany each spent approximately $100,000 for these products. The usual four-to-one ratio of printing plates and cuts exports over imports was maintained for the 6-month period ending June 1966.

Based on percentage gain, manifold business forms held on to its reputation as the fastest growing export market in the printing and publishing spectrum. Though representing less than half a million dollars in first-half foreign sales, the 140-percent jump in exports underlines the fine potential for this product. The principal buyer was Canada; purchases by the Central American countries totaled above $200,000, or roughly 40% of total sales.

Demand for U.S. newspapers and periodicals moved these products to new sales levels. Canada and Mexico (a distant second) were the major newspaper

markets; the USSR bought more U.S. newspapers $27,500) than the United Kingdom ($8,800). In terms of pure volume, U.S. periodicals were the single largest export category. A 44% rise in first-half sales carried it above the $20-million level for the first time. Periodicals exports to Canada approached $10 million, with the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Australia following in rank.

Sales of U.S. books abroad again held a two-to-one margin over book imports. The total book exports of $57 million went primarily to Canada ($24 million) and the United Kingdom ($10 million). A coincidence was noted in book imports and exports; both rose 26% for the half-year.

Canada continued to dominate the export market; its $57 million in purchases was almost four times larger than the record of the United Kingdom, the number two purchaser. Japan and Australia ranked third and fourth in the export picture with combined outlays of over $13 million in the first half of 1966.

Products of the printing and publishing industries imported to the United States in the first half of 1966 totaled $42 million, up 28% over the comparable 1965 period. Books accounted for approximately 62% of printed matter imports. A sizable gain was posted in books of foreign authorship with $18 million in sales, a rise of 33% over 1965. A strong showing was similarly recorded in the category photographs, exposed film, and other pictorial printed matter, with sales to the United States of $4 million; the bulk of these imports (76%) came from Switzerland. Imports of playing cards doubled over the first half figures for 1965, but still ran behind 1966 playing card exports by more than three-to-one.

Losses were recorded in 5 import categories. The biggest drop occurred in purchases of fashion magazines and other current periodicals, down $365,000 from 1965. Imports of bibles and testaments also edged downward from the 1965 period. As periodicals purchases declined, the importation of foreign newspapers increased. Canada sold over $1 million in newspapers to the United States. The second largest seller was the USSR: the United States purchased over $25,000 in USSR newspapers in the first 6 months of 1966.

The principal supplier of printing and publishing products to the United States is the United Kingdom, its $16 million of sales representing 38% of total imports. English language books of foreign authorship accounted for about 70% of the U.K. total. Switzerland edged past Canada into second place, primarily on the basis of sales of $3 million worth of photographs, exposed film, and other pictorial printed matter. West Germany and Japan followed in the fourth and fifth positions, respectively.



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| Imports from United States for period represent 87.9 percent of total. The actual current annual volume of printed imports is estimated to be at least $350,000,000.

VOTE.-These totals do not include what is believed to be the greater part of imported printed matter which customs cannot easily value or record statistically-primarily (1) books, newspapers, periodicals, catalogs and other direct mail advertising entering via 2d- and 3d-class mail, and, secondarily (2) material accompanying other classes of commodities in the form of printed packaging, and such enclosures as instructional booklets, warrantee reorder forms, advertising of related products.

Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics.




Imports from all countries

Imports from United


Newspapers, magazines and periodicals:

Newspaper supplements, sections and parts..
Newspapers, unbound 1

Magazines and periodicals ...
Books and pamphlets:

Religious books and pamphlets..
Books published by foreign governments, U.N. and NATO.
Dictionaries, encyclopaedias, atlases.
Textbooks or works of reference 1...
Books for libraries -
Books and Pamphlets 1 excluding English.
Novels and works of fiction 1.

Books and pamphlets 1.
Maps, pictures, greeting cards, and music;

Globes, geographic, topographic and parts.
Charts and maps.
Greeting cards.--
Pictorial post cards.
Picture reproductions 1.
Music, printed

Children's picture books..
Other printed matter:

Labels, tags, and wrappers
Blueprints, plans and designs..
Decalcomania transfers.
Playing cards in sheets.
Playing cards in packs.
Paper patterns, printed.
Tourist literature...
Advertising matter for free distribution.
Printed matter 1.---
Cut paper, notebooks, and pads.
Filing accessories of paper
Carbon paper
Stationery and paper office supplies 1
Book matches.
Looseleaf binders and parts 1.

Total value.

$1,481, 951

1, 292, 894 47,224,849 5, 122, 183

5, 471, 011
10, 022, 795
2,944, 214
5,018, 406
6,924, 278

326, 904
919, 936

474, 517
1, 315, 992

208, 566 1,519, 547

405, 006

758, 546 2, 189, 567 9, 904, 725

468, 861 703, 310 234, 717 669, 306

546, 758 2,674, 995 9,935,337 1,204, 827

336, 161

437, 040 1,683, 770

252, 055

866, 040 156, 751, 413

$1,479, 347 1, 290, 058 43, 580, 971 3,872, 729

183,513 4,700, 930 9, 770, 242 2,534, 043

174, 485 5,323, 096 28,726, 195

307,527 816, 863

458, 198 1, 154, 870

196, 834 1, 254, 767

375, 377

717,592 2,028, 945 9,651, 077

459, 490 697, 467

94, 961 668, 512

271,779 2, 150, 527 8,718,954 1, 121, 269


364, 850 1,554, 623

196, 987

796, 187 135, 984, 266

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$77, 902, 488 Canadian imports from all countries

29, 174, 725 Canadian imports from United States?

23, 308, 387 1 U.S. Bureau of Census, Ft. 410. 2 Dominion Bureau of Statistics.


Value of U.S. Printing and publishing industry, 1963 : 1

shipments Newspapers

$4, 483,592, 000 Periodicals

2, 295, 716, 000 Books, publishing and printing

1, 534, 632, 000 Book printing--

546,587, 000 Miscellaneous publishing-

389, 588, 000 Printing, except lithographic...

2, 645, 051, 000 Printing, lithographic -

2, 149, 651, 000 Engraving and plate printing

111, 138,000 Manifold business forms..

637, 673, 000 Greeting card manufacturing

345, 961, 000 Blankbooks, looseleaf binders.

268, 219,000 Bookbinding and related work.

228, 477,000 Typesetting

241, 014, 000 Photoengraving

212, 377,000 Electrotyping and stereotyping--

76, 068,000 Total

16, 165, 744, 000 Canadian printing, publishing and allied industries, 1963: * Publishing and printing or publishing only--

449, 081, 000 Commercial and specialty printing---

442, 498, 000 Specialized work and services for others.

71, 547, 000 Subtotal.---

963, 126, 000 Less adjustment for value of sales taxes, excise duties, etc- 3, 358, 000 Total

8 960, 482, 000 1 Source: U.S. Department of Commerce MC63(2)-27A-B-C, Major Group 27. 2 Source : Dominion Bureau of Statistics Catalogue 36–203. * Figures do not total because of rounding.


Senator BURDICK. The subcommittee will come to order. Mr. Arrow.



Mr. ARROW. Good afternoon.

My name is Allen Arrow. I am a member of the bar of the State of New York, and a partner in the firm of Orenstein, Arrow & Louri. Our practice primarily deals with matters of copyright and we have served as counsel to authors, composers, music publishers, recording companies, and performing artists in the United States, Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Brazil, South Africa, Japan, and many other countries. We therefore feel we are qualified to comment on the proposed new copyright law.

We appear here today on behalf of our client the background music project of the 3M Co. of St. Paul, Minn., to comment on and object to only one sentence of S. 597. That sentence is the last sentence in section 115(a) (1) and reads as follows:

A person may obtain a compulsory license only if his primary purpose in making phono-records is to distribute them to the public for private use.

We feel that this sentence is discriminatory against the background music industry, has no justification either in economics or law, and

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