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8502. Remedies for infringement: Injunctions
(a) Any court having jurisdiction of a civil action arising under this title may, subject to the provisions of section 1498 of title 28, grant temporary and final injunctions on such terms as it may deem reasonable to prevent or restrain infringement of a copyright.
(b) Any such injunction may be served anywhere in the United States on the person enjoined; it shall be operative throughout the United States and shall be enforceable, by proceedings in contempt or otherwise, by any United States court having jurisdiction of that person. The clerk of the court granting the injunction shall, when requested by any other court in which enforcement of the injunction is sought, transmit promptly to the other court a certified copy of all the papers in the case on file in his office. 8503. Remedies for infringement: Impounding and disposition of infringing
articles (a) At any time while an action under this title is pending, the court may order the impounding, on such terms as it may deem reasonable, of all copies or phonorecords claimed to have been made or used in violation of the copyright owner's exclusive rights, and of all plates, molds, matrices, masters, tapes, film negatives, or other articles by means of which such copies or phonorecords may be reproduced.
(b) As part of a final judgment or decree, the court may order the destruction or other reasonable disposition of all copies or phonorecords found to have been made or used in violation of the copyright owner's exclusive rights, and of all plates, molds, matrices, masters, tapes, film negatives, or other articles by means of which such copies or phonorecords may be reproduced. 8 504. Remedies for infringement: Damages and profits
(a) IN GENERAL.--Except as otherwise provided by this title, an infringer of copyright is liable for either:
(1) the copyright owner's actual damages and any additional profits of the infringer, as provided by subsection (b); or
(2) statutory damages, as provided by subsection (c). (b) ACTUAL DAMAGES AND PROFITS.—The copyright owner is entitled to recover the actual damages suffered by him as a result of the infringement, and any profits of the infringer that are attributable to the infringement and are not taken into account in computing the actual damages. In establishing the infringer's profits, the copyright owner is required to present proof only of the infringer's gross revenue, and the infringer is required to prove his deductible expenses and the elements of profit attributable to factors other than the copyrighted work. (c) STATUTORY DAMAGES.
(1) Except as provided by clause (2) of this subsection, the copyright owner may elect, at any time before final judgment is rendered, to recover, instead of actual damages and profits, an award of statutory damages for all infringements involved in the action, with respect to any one work, for which any one infringer is liable individually, or for which any two or more infringers are liable jointly and severally, in a sum of not less than $250 or more than $10,000 as the court considers just. For the purposes of this subsection, all the parts of a compilation or derivative work constitute one work.
(2) In a case where the copyright owner sustains the burden of proving, and the court finds, that infringement was committed willfully, the court in its discretion may increase the award of statutory damages to a sum of not more than $20,000. In a case where the infringer sustains the burden of proving, and the court finds, that he was not aware and had no reason to believe that his acts constituted an infringement of copyright, the court in its disdretion may reduce the award of statutory damages to a sum of not less than $100. In a case where an instructor in a nonprofit educational institution, who infringed by reproducing a copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords for use in the course of face-to-face teaching activities in a classroom or similar place normally devoted to instruction, sustains the burden of proving that he believed and had reasonable grounds for believing that the reproduction was a fair use under section 107, the court in its discretion may remit statu
tory damages in whole or in part. 8 505. Remedies for infringement: Costs and attorney's fees
In any civil action under this title, the court in its discretion may allow the recovery of full costs by or against any party other than the United States or an officer thereof. Except as otherwise provided by this title, the court may also award a reasonable attorney's fee to the prevailing party as part of the costs.
8 506. Criminal offenses
(a) CRIMINAL INFRINGEMENT.-Any person who infringes a copyright willfully and for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial gain shall be fined not more than $2,500 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both, for the first such offense, and shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both, for any subsequent offense.
(b) FRAUDULENT COPYRIGHT NOTICE. --Any person who, with fraudulent intent, places on any article a notice of copryight or words of the same purport that he knows to be false, or who, with fraudulent intent, publicly distributes or imports for public distribution any article bearing such notice or words that he knows to be false, shall be fined not more than $2,500.
(c) FRAUDULENT REMOVAL OF COPYRIGHT Notice. Any person who, with fraudulent intent, removes or alters any notice of copyright appearing on a copy of a copyrighted work shall be fined not more than $2,500.
(d) FALSE REPRESENTATION.–Any person who knowingly makes a false representation of a material fact in the application for copyright registration provided for by section 408, or in any written statement filed in connection with the application, shall be fined not more than $2,500. 8 507. Limitations on actions
(a) CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS. No criminal proceeding shall be maintained under the provisions of this title unless it is commenced within three years after the cause of action arose.
(b) CIVIL ACTIONS.—No civil action shall be maintained under the provisions of this title unless it is commenced within three years after the claim accrued. 8 508. Notification of filing and determination of actions
(a) Within one month after the filing of any action under this title, the clerks of the courts of the United States shall send written notification to the Register of Copyrights setting forth, as far as is shown by the papers filed in the court, the names and addresses of the parties and the title, author, and registration number of each work involved in the action. If any other copyrighted work is later included in the action by amendment, answer, or other pleading, the clerk shall also send a notification concerning it to the Register within one month after the pleading is filed,
(b) Within one month after any final order or judgment is issued in the case, the clerk of the court shall notify the Register of it, sending him a copy of the order or judgment together with the written opinion, if any, of the court.
(c) Upon receiving the notifications specified in this section, the Register shall make them a part of the public records of the Copyright Office.
Chapter 6.—MANUFACTURING REQUIREMENT AND IMPORTATION Sec. 601, Manufacture, importation, and public distribution of certain copies. 602. Infringing importation of copies or phonorecords. 603. Importation prohibitions : Enforcement and disposition of excluded articles. 8 601. Manufacture, importation, and public distribution of certain copies
(a) Except as provided by subsection (b), the importation into or public distribution in the United States of copies of a work consisting preponderantly of nondramatic literary material that is in the English language and is protected under this title is prohibited unless the portions consisting of such material have been manufactured in the United States. (b) The provisions of subsection (a) do not apply:
(1) where, on the date when importation is sought or, public distribution in the United States is made, the author of any substantial part of such material is neither a national nor a domiciliary of the United States or, if he is a national of the United States, has been domiciled outside of the United States for a continuous period of at least one year immediately preceding that date;
(2) where the Bureau of Customs is presented with an import statement issued under the seal of the Copyright Office, in which case a total of no more than two thousand copies of any one such work shall be allowed entry; the import statement shall be issued upon request to the copyright owner or to a person designated by him at the time of registration for the work under section 407 or at any time thereafter;
(3) where importation is sought under the authority or for the use, other than in schools, of the government of the United States or of any State or political subdivision of a State; (4) where importation, for use and not for sale, is sought:
(A) by any person with respect to no more than one copy of any one work at any one time;
(B) by any person arriving from abroad, with respect to copies forming part of his personal baggage; or
(C) by an organization operated for scholarly, educational, or religious purposes and not for private gain, with respect to copies intended to form a part of its library; (5) where the copies are reproduced in raised characters for the use of the blind;
(6) where, in addition to copies imported under clauses (3) and (4) of this subsection, no more than two thousand copies of any one such work, which have not been manufactured in the United States, are publicly distributed in
the United States. (c) The requirement of this section that copies be manufactured in the United States is satisfied if:
(1) in the case where the.copies are printed directly from type that has been set, or directly from plates made from such type, the setting of the type and the making of the plates have been performed in the United States; or
(2) in the case where the copies are printed directly from plates made by a lithographic or photoengraving process, the making of the plates has been performed in the United States; and
(3) in any case, the printing or other final process of producing multiple copies and any binding of the copies have been performed in the United
States. (d) Importation or public distribution of copies in violation of this section does not invalidate protection for a work under this title. However, in any civil action or criminal proceeding for infringement of the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute copies of the work, the infringer has a complete defense with respect to all of the nondramatic literary material comprised in the work and any other parts of the work in which the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute copies are owned by the same person who owns such exclusive rights in the nondramatic literary material, if he proves:
(1) that copies of the work have been imported into or publicly distributed in the United States in violation of this section by or with the authority of the owner of such exclusive rights; and
(2) that the infringing copies were manufactured in the United States in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c); and
(3) that the infringement was commenced before the effective date of registration for an authorized edition of the work, the copies of which have been manufactured in the United States in accordance with the provisions of
subsection (c). (e) In any action for infringement of the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute copies of a work containing material required by this section to be manufactured in the United States, the copyright owner shall set forth in the complaint the names of the persons or organizations who performed the processes specified by subsection (c) with respect to that material, and the places where those processes were performed. 8602. Infringing importation of copies or phonorecords
(a) Importation into the United States, without the authority of the owner of copyright under this title, of copies or phonorecords of a work that have been acquired abroad is an infringement of the exclusive right to distribute copies or phonorecords under section 106, actionable under section 501. This subsection does not apply to:
(1) importation of copies or phonorecords under the authority or for the use, other than in schools, of the government of the United States or of any State or political subdivision of a State, but not including copies of any audiovisual work imported for purposes other than archival use;
(2) importation, for use and not for sale, by any person with respect to no more than one copy or phonorecord of any one work at any one time, or by any person arriving from abroad with respect to copies or phonorecords forming part of his personal baggage; or
(3) importation' by or for an organization operated for scholarly, educational, or religious purposes and not for private gain, with respect to no more than one copy of an audiovisual work solely for its archival purposes, and no more than five copies or phonorecords of any other work for its
library lending or archival purposes. (b) In a case where the making of the copies or phonorecords would have constituted an infringement of copyright if this title had been applicable, their importation is prohibited. In a case where the copies or phonorecords were lawfully made, the Bureau of Customs has no authority to prevent their importation unless the provisions of section 601 are applicable. In either case, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to prescribe, by regulation, a procedure under which any person claiming an interest in the copyright in a particular work may, upon payment of a specified fee, be entitled to notification by the Bureau of the importation of articles that appear to be copies or phonorecords of the work. 8603. Importation prohibitions : Enforcement and disposition of excluded articles
(a) The Secretary of the Treasury and the Postmaster General shall separately or jointly make regulations for the enforcement of the provisions of this title prohibiting importation.
(b) These regulations may require, as a condition for the exclusion of articles under section 602:
(1) that the person seeking exclusion obtain a court order enjoining importation of the articles; or
(2) that he furnish proof, of a specified nature and in accordance with prescribed procedures, that the copyright in which he claims an interest is valid and that the importation would violate the prohibition in section 602; he may also be required to post a surety bond for any injury that may result
if the detention or exclusion of the articles proves to be unjustified. (c) Articles imported in violation of the importation prohibitions of this title are subject to seizure and forfeiture in the same manner as property imported in violation of the customs revenue laws. Forfeited articles shall be destroyed as directed by the Secretary of the Treasury or the court, as the case may be; however, the articles may be returned to the country of export whenever it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury that the importer had no reasonable grounds for believing that his acts constituted a violation of law.
Chapter 7.-COPYRIGHT OFFICE Sec. 701. The Copyright Office : General responsibilities and organization. 702. Copyright Office regulations. 703. Effective date of actions in Copyright Office. 704. Retention and disposition of articles deposited in Copyright Office. 705. Copyright Office records : Preparation, maintenance, public Inspection, and searching. 706. Copies of Copyright Office records. 707. Copyright Office forms and publications. 708. Copyright Office fees. $ 701. The Copyright Office: General responsibilities and organization
(a) All administrative functions and duties under this title, except as otherwise specified, are the responsibility of the Register of Copyrights as director of the Copyright Office in the Library of Congress. The Register of Copyrights, together with the subordinate officers and employees of the Copyright ofice, shall be appointed by the Librarian of Congress, and shall act under his general direction and supervision.
(b) The Register of Copyrights shall adopt a seal to be used on and after January 1, 1969, to authenticate all certified documents issued by the Copyright Office.
(c) The Register of Copyrights shall make an annual report to the Librarian of Congress of the work and accomplishments of the Copyright Office during the previous fiscal year. The annual report of the Register of Copyrights shall be published separately and as a part of the annual report of the Librarian of Congress. 8 702. Copyright Office regulations
The Register of Copyrights is authorized to establish regulations not inconsistent with law for the administration of the functions and duties made his responsibility under this title. All regulations established by the Register under this title are subject to the approval of the Librarian of Congress. 8 703. Effective date of actions in Copyright Office
In any case in which time limits are prescribed under this title for the performance of an action in the Copyright Office, and in which the last day of the
prescribed period falls on a Saturday, Sunday, holiday or other non-business day within the District of Columbia or the Federal Government, the action may be taken on the next succeeding business day, and is effective as of the date when the period expired. 8 704. Retention and disposition of articles deposited in Copyright Office
(a) Upon their deposit in the Copyright Office under sections 406 and 407, all copies, phonorecords, and identifying material, including those deposited in connection with claims that have been refused registration, are the property of the United States Government.
(b) In the case of published works, all copies, phonorecords, and identifying material deposited are available to the Library of Congress for its collections, or for exchange or transfer to any other library. In the case of unpublished works, the Library is entitled to select any deposits for its collections.
(c) Deposits not selected by the Library, under subsection (b) or identifying portions or reproductions of them, shall be retained under the control of the Copyright Office, including retention in Government storage facilities, for the longest period considered practicable and desirable by the Register of Copyrights and the Librarian of Congress. After that period it is within the joint discretion of the Register and the Librarian to order their destruction or other disposition; but in the case of unpublished works, no deposit shall be destroyed or otherwise disposed of during its term of copyright.
(d) The depositor of copies, phonorecords, or identifying material under section 407, or the copyright owner of record, may request retention, under the control of the Copyright Office, or one or more of such articles for the full term of copyright in the work. The Register of Copyrights shall prescribe, by regulation, the conditions under which such requests are to be made and granted, and shall fix the fee to be charged under section 708(11) if the request is granted. $ 705. Copyright Office records: Preparation, maintenance, public inspection,
and searching (a) The Register of Copyrights shall provide and keep in the Copyright Office records of all deposits, registrations, recordations, and other actions taken under this title, and shall prepare indexes of all such records.
(b) Such records and indexes, as well as the articles deposited in connection with completed copyright registrations and retained under the control of the Copyright Office, shall be open to public inspection.
(c) Upon request and payment of the fee specified by section 708, the Copy: right Office shall make a search of its public records, indexes, and deposits, and shall furnish a report of the information they disclose with respect to any particular deposits, registrations, or recorded documents. 8 706. Copies of Copyright Office records
(a) Copies may be made of any public records or indexes of the Copyright Office; additional certificates of copyright registration and copies of any public records or indexes may be furnished upon request and payment of the fees specified by section 708.
(b) Copies or reproductions of deposited articles retained under the control of the Copyright Office shall be authorized or furnished only under the conditions specified by the Copyright Office regulations. $707. Copyright Office forms and publications
(a) CATALOG OF COPYRIGHT ENTRIES.—The Register of Copyrights shall compile and publish at periodic intervals catalogs of all copyright registrations. These catalogs shall be divided into parts in accordance with the various classes of works, and the Register has discretion to determine on the basis of practicability and usefulness, the form and frequency of publication of each particular part.
(b) OTHER PUBLICATIONS.—The Register shall furnish, free of charge upon request, application forms for copyright registration and general informational material in connection with the functions of the Copyright Office. He also has authority to publish compilations of information, bibliographies, and other material he considers to be of value to the public.
(c) DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLICATIONS.--All publications of the Copyright Office shall be furnished to depository libraries as specified under section 2 of the Depository Library Act of 1962 (76 Stat. 353, 44 U.S.C. $ 82), and, aside from those furnished free of charge, shall be offered for sale to the public at prices based on the cost of reproduction and distribution.