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value of nechanical royalties paid in one year by the number of releases in the year, and to compare that figure with the corresponding value in another year. * That is done in Exhibit 4, which measures the trend in royalties per released tune as between 1963 and 1972. Royalties per released tune went from $656 to $1,399, an increase of 113%. That percentage increase is a reasonable neasure of the percentage increase in mechanical royalties per tune, although the dollar income per average tune would be considerably higher because of multiple releases per tune. Accordingly, the dollars of royalties per tune were going up faster than the royalties per release of that tune, which, themselves, were going up faster than inflation.
It should be noted and emphasized that these domestic mechanical royalties constituted only part of the income received by copyright owners from recorded music. They also received sizeable foreign nechanical royalties as Exhibits 2 and 3 make clear. In addition, their incomes from performances were about as great as the mechanical royalties and were also accruing faster than inflation.
We shall now turn to an examination of what has brought about the tremendous increases in incomes of copyright owners from recorded music.
*The largest share of nechanical royalties occurs on recent!y released
License royalties per release of tunes recorded (6:5)
Note: For this Exhibit, the year 1972 was used because it was the latest
year for which the numbers and releases were available. astatistiss on releases are from zil board. "The 11.25 rues per ip iwas caicuiated is follows: In 1963, there were approximately 12 tunes per popular LP. CRI'S survey of 13 leading record companies, with 61% of the industry's 1972 sales, indicated that, on the average in 1972, a nechanical royal:y of 22.5. was paid for each popular LP. With a 2+ rate, this would indicate that the average popular L? had 11.25 tunes in 1972. This overstates the number of times released, for one "une may be recorded on both a single and an L?, a practice that was more common in 1972 chan in 1963. Also, a ziven cune may be recorded in severa! ji:ferent versions on ?'s or singles or coch. The number vises secorded is only one iracion vi che number of reieases. The above iigures of releases do act include apes. Thie copyright 70.ders eam nechanical royalties com che sales oi cheir unes on cape, 15 'eil is on records.' d-or source of cata,
see :ibit 3D.
THE HIGH INCOME ENJOYED BY COPYRIGHT OWNERS (CONT'D.)
THE MUSIC PUBLISHING INDUSTRY HAS NOT ONLY BEATEN INFLATION BY
Thanks to the revolution in recording technology and in
far more than the 5% envisaged by Congress
In order to reach an informed, not to say a fair judgment concerning the statutory mechanical royalty rate and whether it should be increased, one really must recognize and take under advisement some basic facts as to the nature and attraction of modern-day recorded music and the economics of the recording industry.
Seen from our present-day perspectie, che recordings of 1909
tion of sheet music was produced through perforations in a roll of paper. The experience of listening to such music miraculous in its day, no doubt bears little relationship to the experience of listening to modern recorded music, popular or classical.
The technology of recording sound has advanced tremendously. Fidelity range, responsiveness, and freedom from distortion is only one aspect of this advance. Many and varied sound and musical effects may now be created through use of multiple microphones and amplifiers, and multi-channel recording tapes controlled througn intricate electronic consoles.
This advancing technology nakes extraordinary kinds and ranges of musical expression come alive through artistry of performance, arrangements, musical concepts, and through sound as something to be experienced for itself.
A tume, alone, a configuration of musical notes indicated on a
in less than a generation, the recording industry has gone from "L" to "Hi-Fi" to stereophonic -9. quadraphonic sound: Erom "micrygroove'' -5 3-channel, Sequency-screened and corrected tapes.
These facts about modern recorded music are coming to be recog-
Each instrument has its own microphone leading to its own
Even a president of the American Guild of Authors and Composers
Years ago a publisher bought a song, plugged it and got
Benefits from, and Contributions to Recorded Music: Recording
Overview. In Parts A, B, and C of Exhibit 5, estimates are given
Growth in Record Retai! Sales. Between !953 and 1974,
she wal: it:set journal, :eoruary :2, 1374, ?...
The Yex ?ork Times, dugust 3. :966.