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the transgressors of those provisions who return to the country of their origin are there liable to trial on account of any and whatever responsibility they may have incurred through such infraction.

ARTICLE III If a Portuguese subject naturalized in America, renews his residence in Portugal, without intent to return to America, he shall be held to have renounced his naturalization in the United States. Reciprocally, if an American naturalized in Portugal renews his residence in the United States, without intent to return to Portugal, he shall be held to have renounced his naturalization in Portugal.

The intent not to return may be held to exist when the person naturalized in one country resides more than two years in the other country. (35 Stat. (pt. 2), 2082; Treaty Series, No. 513; Malloy, Treaties, II, 1468.)

PUERTO RICO

(See Treaty under "Spain.")

RUSSIA'

(The Convention between the United States and Russia ceding Alaska to the United States was signed at Washington, March 30, 1867; ratification advised by the Senate, April 9, 1867; ratified by the President, May 28, 1867 ; ratified by Russia, May 3, 1867; ratifications exchanged at Washington, June 20, 1867 ; proclaimed June 20, 1867. It contains the following provision:]

ARTICLE III. The inhabitants of the ceded territory, according to their choice, reserving their natural allegiance, may return to Russia within three years; but if they should prefer to remain in the ceded territory, they, with the exception of uncivilized native tribes, shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages and immunities of citizens of the United States, and shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property and religion. The uncivilized tribes will be subject to such laws and regulations as the United States may, from time to time, adopt in regard to aboriginal tribes of that country. (15 Stat. 539; 18 Stat. (pt. 2, Public Treaties), 671; Treaty Series, No. 301; Malloy, Treaties, IÍ, 1521.)

SALVADOR [Naturalization convention signed at San Salvador, March 14, 1908; ratification advised by the Senate, April 13, 1908; ratified by the President, May 26, 1908; ratified by El Salvador, April 13, 1908; ratifications exchanged at San Salvador, July 20, 1908; proclaimed, July 23, 1908.)

ARTICLE I

Citizens of the United States who may or shall have been naturalized in Salvador, upon their own application or by their own consent, will be considered by the United States as citizens of the Republic of Salvador. Reciprocally, Salvadoreans who may or shall have been naturalized in the United States upon their own application or with their own consent, will be considered by the Republic of Salvador as citizens of the United States.

? The Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Rassmussen v. United States, 197 U. S. 516, held that under the treaty Alaska was incorporated into the United States,

While the laws relating to citizenship in the United States are applicable to Alaska, It seems particularly desirable to call attention to the following portion of the act of Congress of June 2, 1924 (43 Stat. 253), which reads in part as follows:

"That all noncitizen Indians born witbin the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States :

18 U.S. C. 3.)

ARTICLE II If a Salvadorean, naturalized in the United States of America, renews his residence in Salvador, without intent to return to the United States, he may be held to have renounced his naturalization in the United States. Reciprocally, if a citizen of the United States, naturalized in Salvador, renews his residence in the United States, without intent to return to Salvador, he may be presumed to have renounced his naturalization in Salvador.

The intent not to return may be held to exist when the person naturalized in the one country, resides more than two years in the other country, but this presumption may be destroyed by evidence to the contrary.

ARTICLE III It is mutually agreed that the definition of the word "citizen," as used in this convention, shall be held to mean a person to whom nationality of the United States or Salvador attaches.

ARTICLE IV

A recognized citizen of the one party, returning to the territory of the other, remains liable to trial and legal punishment for an action punishable by the laws of his original country and committed before his emigration; but not for the emigration itself, saving always the limitation established by the laws of his original country, and any other remission of liability to punishment.

ARTICLE V The declaration of intention to become a citizen of the one or the other country has not for either party the effect of naturalization. (35 Stat. (pt. 2), 2038; Treaty Series, No. 503; Malloy, Treaties, II, 1570.)

SAMOA (AMERICAN)
[See Treaty under "Germany."]

SPAIN

(FLORIDA) (Signed at Washington, February 22, 1819; ratification advised by the Senate, February 24, 1819; ratification advised again by the Senate, Feb. ruary 19, 1821 ; ratified by the President, February 22, 1821; ratifications exchanged February 22, 1821 ; proclaimed February 22, 1821.]

ARTICLE VI

The inhabitants of the territories which His Catholic Majesty cedes to the United States, by this treaty, shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, as soon as may be consistent with the principles of the Federal Constitution, and admitted to the enjoyment of all the privileges, rights, and immunities of the citizens of the United States. (8 Stat. 252; Treaty Series, No. 327; Malloy, Treaties, II, 1651.)

(GUAM) [While Congress has passed special acts determining the civil rights and political status of inhabitants of other territories, such as the Philippine Islands and Puerto Rico, ceded to the United States by Spain by the Treaty between the United States and Spain concluded December 10, 1898, and ratified and proclaimed April 11, 1899, no legislation has been enacted by Congress concerning the civil rights and political status of the inhabitants of Guam. It seems clear, however, that all Spanish subjects who were residing in Guam at the time of cession, including natives of Guam and natives of the Peninsula of Spain, became American nationals under the provisions of art. IX of the treaty quoted hereinafter under "Philippine Islands," except such natives of the Peninsula of Spain as may have preserved allegiance to Spain by making the declaration provided for in art. IX of the treaty.)

(PHILIPPINE ISLANDS) [Treaty between the United States and Spain signed at Paris, December 10, 1898; ratification advised by the Senate, February 6, 1899; ratified by the President February 6, 1899; ratified by Spain, March 19, 1899; ratifications exchanged at Washington, April 11, 1899; proclaimed, April 11, 1899.)

ARTICLE IX. Spanish subjects, natives of the Peninsula, residing in the territory over which Spain by the present treaty relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty, may remain in such territory or may remove therefrom, retaining in either event all their rights of property, including the right to sell or dispose of such property or its proceeds; and they shall also have the right to carry on their industry, commerce and professions, being subject in respect thereof to such laws as are applicable to other foreigners. In case they remain in the territory they may preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain by making, before a court of record, within a year from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, a declaration of their decision to preserve such allegiance; in default of which declaration they shall be held to have renounced it and to have adopted the nationality of the territory in which they may reside.

The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the territories hereby ceded to the United States shall be determined by the Congress. (30 Stat. 1754; Treaty Series, No. 343; Malloy, Treaties, II, 1690.)

(PUERTO RICO) [See Article IX of the Treaty between the United States and Spain concluded December 10, 1898, and ratified and proclaimed April 11, 1890 (quoted above under “Philippine Islands").]

• Protocol with Spain extending the period during which Spanish subjects, natives of the Peninsula, may declare their intention to retain their Spanish nationality, concluded March 29, 1900, and proclaimed April 28, 1900 (31 Stat. 1881), provided :

“SOLE ARTICLE" "The period fixed in Article IX of the Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain, signed at Paris on the tenth day of December, 1898, during which Spanish subjects, natives of the Peninsula, may declare before a court of record their intention to retain their Spanish nationality, is extended as to the Philippine Islands for six months beginning April 11, 1900."

SWEDEN

EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE OF PERSONS HAVING DUAL

NATIONALITY [Signed at Stockholm, January 31, 1933; ratification advised by the Senate of the United States, February 6, 1935; ratified by the President of the United States, February 11, 1935; ratified by Sweden, June 2, 1933; ratifications exchanged at Washington, February 20, 1935; proclaimed by the President of the United States, May 20, 1935.]

ARTICLE I A person possessing the nationality of both the High Contracting Parties who habitually resides in the territory of one of them and who is in fact most closely connected with that Party shall be exempt from all military obligations in the territory of the other Party. (49 Stat. 3195; Treaty Series, No. 890; Treaties, Trenwith, IV, 4656, 159 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 261.)

SWEDEN AND NORWAY

10

[Naturalization convention and protocol signed with Sweden and Norway May 26, 1869; ratification advised by Senate, December 9, 1870; rati, fied by President, December 17, 1870; ratified by Sweden and Norway, June 14, 1871; ratifications exchanged at Stockholm, June 14, 1871; proclaimed January 12, 1872.]

ARTICLE I

Citizens of the United States of America who have resided in Sweden or Norway for a continuous period of at least five years, and during such residence have become and are lawfully recognized as citizens of Sweden or Norway, shall be held by the Government of the United States to be Swedish or Norwegian citizens, and shall be treated as such.

Reciprocally, citizens of Sweden or Norway who have resided in the United States of America for a continuous period of at least five years, and during such residence have become naturalized citizens of the United States, shall be held by the Government of Sweden and Norway to be American citizens, and shall be treated as such.

The declaration of an intention to become a citizen of one or the other country has not for either party the effect of citizenship legally acquired.

ARTICLE II A recognized citizen of the one party, on returning to the territory of the other, remains liable to trial and punishment for an action punishable by the laws of his original country, and committed before his emigration, but not for the emigration itself, saving always the limitation established by the laws of his original country, and any other remission of liability to punishment.

. This convention was negotiated in pursuance of the joint resolution of Congress approved May 28, 1928, reading as follows:

"That the President be, and he is hereby, respectfully requested to endeavor as soon as possible to negotiate treaties with the remaining nations with which we have no such agreement, providing that persons born in the United States of foreign parentage, and naturalized American citizens, shall not be held liable for military service or any other act of alleglance during a stay in the territory subject to the jurisdiction of any such nation while citizens of the United States of America under the laws thereof. (45 Stat. 789.)

10 The treatles in force between the United States and the Union of Sweden and Norway at the time of the dissolution of Union in 1905 were recognized as applicable thereafter between the United States and Sweden and Norway separately. Foreign Relations, 1905, pages 872–874.

ARTICLE III If a citizen of the one party, who has become a recognized citizen of the other party, takes up his abode once more in his original country, and applies to be restored to his former citizenship, the Government of the last-named country is authorized to receive him again as a citizen, on such conditions as the said Government may think proper.

PROTOCOL

[DONE AT STOCKHOLM, MAY 26, 1869) The undersigned met to-day to sign the convention agreed upon in conformity with their respective full powers, relating to the citizenship of those persons who emigrate from the United States of America to Sweden and Norway, and from Sweden and Nor. way to the United States of America; on which occasion the following observations, more exactly defining and explaining the contents of this convention, were entered in the following protocol:

I. Relating to the first article of the convention.

It is understood that if a citizen of the United States of America has been discharged from his American citizenship, or, on the other side, if a Swede or a Norwegian has been discharged from his Swedish or Norwegian citizenship, in the manner legally prescribed by the Government of his original country, and then in the other country in a rightful and perfectly valid manner acquires citizenship, then an additional five years' residence shall no longer be required; but a person who has in that manner been recognized as a citizen of the other country shall, from the moment thereof, be held and treated as a Swedish or Norwegian citizen, and, reciprocally, as a citizen of the United States.

II. Relating to the second article of the convention.

If a former Swede or Norwegian, who under the first article is to be held as an adopted citizen of the United States of America, has emigrated after he has attained the age when he becomes liable to military service, and returns again to his original country, it is agreed that he remains liable to trial and punishment for an action punishable by the laws of his original country and committed before his emigration, but not for the act of emigration itself, unless thereby have been committed any punishable action against Sweden or Norway, or against a Swedish or Norwegian citizen, such as non-fulfilment of military service, or desertion from the military force or from a ship, saving always the limitation established by the laws of the original country, and any other remission of liability to punishment; and that he can be held to fulfil, according to the laws, his military service, or the remaining part thereof.

III. Relating to the third article of the convention.

It is further agreed that if a Swede or Norwegian, who has become a naturalized citizen of the United States, renews his resi

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