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each country under its laws, shall not, if he has his habitual residence, that is, the place of his general abode, in the territory of the country of his birth, be held liable for military service or any other act of allegiance during a temporary stay in the territory of the other country.

Provided, that, if such stay is protracted beyond the period of two years, it shall be presumed to be permanent, in the absence of sufficient evidence showing that return to the territory of the other country will take place within a short time.

ARTICLE III The present treaty shall be ratified and the ratifications thereof shall be exchanged at Washington. It shall take effect in all its provisions on the day of the exchange of ratifications and shall continue in force for the term of ten years from that day.

If within one year before the expiration of ten years from the day on which the present treaty shall come into force, neither High Contracting Party notifies the other of an intention of terminating the treaty upon the expiration of the aforesaid period of ten years, the treaty shall remain in full force and effect after the aforesaid period and until one year from such a time as either of the High Contracting Parties shall have notified to the other an intention of terminating the treaty. (53 Stat. (pt. 3), 1569; Treaty Series, No. 936, 191, League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 851.)

MEXICO [Signed at Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848; ratification advised by the Senate, with amendments, March 10, 1848; ratified by the President, March 16, 1848; ratifications exchanged, May 30, 1848; proclaimed July 4, 1848.]

ARTICLE VIII Mexicans now established in territories previously belonging to Mexico, and which remain for the future within the limits of the United States, as defined by the present treaty, shall be free to continue where they now reside, or to remove at any time to the Mexican Republic, retaining the property which they possess in the said territories, or disposing thereof, and removing the proceeds wherever they please; without their being subjected, on this account, to any contribution, tax, or charge whatever.

Those who shall prefer to remain in the said territories may either retain the title and rights of Mexican citizens, or acquire those of citizens of the United States. But they shall be under the obligation to make their election within one year from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty; and those who shall remain in the said territories after the expiration of that year, without having declared their intention to retain the character of Mexicans, shall be considered to have elected to become citizens of the United States.

In the said territories, property of every kind, now belonging to Mexicans not established there, shall be inviolably respected. The present owners, the heirs of these, and all Mexicans who may hereafter acquire said property by contract, shall enjoy with respect to it guarantees equally ample as if the same belonged to citizens of the United States.

ARTICLE IX The Mexicans who, in the territories aforesaid, shall not preserve the character of citizens of the Mexican Republic, conformably with what is stipulated in the preceding article, shall be incorporated into the Union of the United States, and be admitted at the proper time (to be judged of by the Congress of the United States) to the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States, according to the principles of the Constitution; and in the mean time, shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and property, and secured in the free exercise of their religion without restriction. (9 Stat. 922; Treaty Series, No. 207; Malloy, Treaties, I, 1107.)

[Signed at Mexico, December 30, 1853; ratification advised by the Senate, with amendments, April 25, 1854; ratified by the President, June 29, 1834; ratifications exchanged June 30, 1854; proclaimed June 30, 1854.]

ARTICLE V
All the provisions of the eighth and ninth

articles of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, shall apply to the territory ceded by the Mexican Republic in the first article of the present treaty, and to all the rights of persons and property, both civil and ecclesiastical, within the same, as fully and as effectually as if the said articles were herein again recited and set forth. (10 Stat. 1031; Treaty Series, No. 208; Malloy, Treaties, I, 1121.)

[See also Multipartite Treaties at page 631.)

NICARAGUA (Nationality convention signed at Managua, December 7, 1908; ratification advised by the Senate, January 21, 1909; ratified by the President, March 1, 1909; ratified by Nicaragua, March 28, 1912; ratifications exchanged at Managua, March 28, 1912; proclaimed, May 10, 1912.]

ARTICLE I 1. Citizens of the United States who have been or may be voluntarily naturalized in Nicaragua in conformity with the laws thereof, shall be considered and treated by the Government of the United States as citizens of Nicaragua.

2. Reciprocally, citizens of Nicaragua who have been or may be voluntarily naturalized in the United States in conformity with the laws thereof, shall be considered and treated by the Government of Nicaragua as citizens of the United States.

ARTICLE II 1. If a citizen of the United States naturalized in Nicaragua renews his residence in the United States without the intention to

return to Nicaragua, it shall be considered that he has renounced his citizenship in Nicaragua.

2. Reciprocally, if a citizen of Nicaragua naturalized in the United States renews his residence in Nicaragua without intention to return to the United States it shall be deemed that he has renounced his citizenship in the United States.

3. The intention not to return shall be deemed to exist when a person naturalized in one of the two countries resides for more than two years continuously in the other country; however, such presumption may be destroyed by evidence to the contrary.

ARTICLE III A mere declaration of intention to become naturalized in either country shall not, in either country, have the effect of legally acquired citizenship.

ARTICLE IV Citizens naturalized in one of the two countries and returning to the country of their origin shall be subject to trial and punishment in the latter for any punishable act committed before their emigration, but not for the act of emigrating itself, always excepting cases of limitation or any other remission of liability.

ARTICLE V It is agreed between both parties to define the word "citizenship’, as used in this Convention, to mean the status of a person possessing the nationality of the United States or Nicaragua. (37 Stat. (pt. 2), 1560; Treaty Series, No. 566; Redmond, Treaties, III, 2738; Charles, Treaties, III, 95.)

[See also Multipartite Treaties at page 631.)

NORWAY

EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE OR OTHER ACT OF ALLEGIANCE OF

PERSONS HAVING DUAL NATIONALITY (Signed at Oslo, November 1, 1930; ratification advised by the Senate of the United States, December 20, 1930; ratified by the President of the United States, December 31, 1930; ratified by Norway, December 19, 1930; ratifications exchanged at Washington, February 11, 1931; proclaimed by the President of the United States, February 12, 1931.)

ARTICLE I

A person born in the territory of one party of parents who are nationals of the other party, and having the nationality of both parties under their laws, shall not, if he has his habitual residence, that is, the place of his general abode, in the territory of the state

This Treaty was negotiated in pursuance of the joint resolution of Congress approved May 28, 1928, reading as follows:

"That the President be, and he is hereby, respectfully requested to endeavor as soon as possible to negotiate treaties with the remaining nations with which we have no such agreement, providing that persons born in the United States of foreign parentage, and naturalized American citizens, shall not be held liable for military service or any other act of allegiance during a stay in the territory subject to the jurisdiction of any such nation while citizens of the United States of America under the laws thereof." (45 Stat. 789.)

of his birth, be held liable for military service or any other act of allegiance during a temporary stay in the territory of the other party.

Provided, that, if such stay is protracted beyond the period of two years, it shall be presumed to be permanent, in the absence of sufficient evidence showing that return to the territory of the other party will take place within a short time. (46 Stat. (pt. 2), 2904; Treaty Series, No. 832; Trenwith, Treaties, IV, 4542; 112 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 399.) [See also "Sweden and Norway," p. 628, convention and protocol between the United

States of America and Sweden and Norway signed at Stockholm May 26, 1869 : ratified, December 17, 1870; ratification exchanged, June 14, 1871; proclaimed, January 12, 1872. (17 Stat. 809; Treaty Series, No. 350 ; Malloy, Treaties, II, 1758.)]

PANAMA

[The Attorney General in an opinion of September 7, 1907, held that citizens of Panama who were residents of the Canal Zone on the date of the convention between the United States and the Republic of Panama for the construction of a ship canal (February 26, 1904), and who did not take any affirmative action to retain citizenship in Panama, owe allegiance to the United States. (26 Op. Atty. Gen. 376.)]

[See also Multipartite Treatles at page 631.]

PARAGUAY
[See Multipartite Treaties at page 631.)

PERU

[Naturalization convention signed at Lima, October 15, 1907; ratification advised by the Senate, February 19, 1908; ratified by the President, March 9, 1908; ratified by Peru, July 23, 1909; ratifications exchanged at Lima, July 23, 1909; proclaimed, September 2, 1909.)

ARTICLE I Citizens of the United States who may be or shall have been naturalized in Peru upon their own application or by their own consent, will be considered by the United States as citizens of the Republic of Peru. Reciprocally, Peruvians who may or shall have been naturalized in the United States upon their

own application or with their consent, will be considered by the Republic of Peru as citizens of the United States.

ARTICLE II

If a Peruvian, naturalized in the United States of America, renews his residence in Peru without intent to return to the United States, he may be held to have renounced his naturalization in the United States. Reciprocally, if a citizen of the United States naturalized in Peru renews his residence in the United States without intent to return to Peru, he may be presumed to have renounced his naturalization in Peru.

The intent not to return may be held to exist when the person naturalized in the one country resides more than two years in the other country, but this presumption may be destroyed by evidence to the contrary.

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ARTICLE III It is mutually agreed that the definition of the word "citizen" as used in this convention shall be held to mean a person to whom nationality of the United States or of Peru attaches.

ARTICLE IV A recognized citizen of the one party returning to the territory of the other remains liable to trial and legal punishment for any action punishable by the laws of his original country and committed before his emigration; but not for the emigration itself, saving always the limitation established by the laws of his original country and

any other remission of liability to punishment.

ARTICLE V

The declaration of intention to become a citizen of the one or the other country has not for either party the effect of naturalization. (36 Stat. (pt. 2), 2181; Treaty Series, No. 532; Malloy, Treaties, II, 1449.)

[See also Multipartite Treaties at page 631.)

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
(See Treaty under "Spain.")

PORTUGAL

(Naturalization convention signed at Washington, May 7, 1908; ratification advised by the Senate, May 14, 1908; ratified by the President, November 6, 1908; ratified by Portugal, September 21, 1908; ratifications exchanged at Washington, November 14, 1908; proclaimed, December 14, 1908.)

ARTICLE I

Subjects of Portugal who become naturalized citizens of the United States of America and shall have resided uninterruptedly within the United States five years shall be held by Portugal to be American citizens and shall be treated as such. Reciprocally, citizens of the United States of America who become naturalized subjects of Portugal and shall have resided uninterruptedly within Portuguese territory five years shall be held by the United States to be Portuguese subjects and shall be treated as such.

ARTICLE II

A recognized citizen of the one party on returning to the territory of the other remains liable to trial and punishment for an action punishable by the laws of his original country, and committed before his emigration, but not for the emigration itself, saving always the limitation established by the laws of his original country, and any other remission of liability to punishment.

The infraction of the legal provisions which in the country of origin regulate emigration shall not be held, for the purposes of this article, as pertaining to the emigration itself and, therefore,

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