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one judge in the district, and all fees and emoluments authorized by law to be paid to the clerks of the United States district courts, except the clerks of the district courts of Alaska, shall be charged as heretofore and shall be collected, as far as possible, and paid into the Treasury of the United States in such manner and at such times as hereinafter provided; and such clerks shall be paid, in lieu of the fees and emoluments now allowed by law, an annual salary as hereinafter provided : Provided, That this section shall not be construed to require or authorize fees to be charged or collected from the United States.” (41 Stat. 1099; 28 U. S. C. 557.)

COMPENSATION TO CLERKS OF COURTS

(Act approved March 4, 1921) SECTION 1.

That provisions of the Act entitled "An Act to fix the salaries of the clerks of the United States district courts and to provide for their office expenses, and for other purposes," approved February 26, 1919, shall be applicable on and after July 1, 1921, to the clerk of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, excepting that said clerk shall be appointed as heretofore by said Court in General Term, and to the Clerks of the district courts of the United States for Hawaii and Porto Rico: Provided further, That no clerk or deputy clerk or assistant in the office of the clerk of a United States district court shall receive any compensation or emoluments through any office or position to which he may be appointed by the court, other than that received as such clerk, deputy clerk, or assistant, whether from the United States or from private litigants. * (41 Stat. 1412–1413; 28 U. S. C. 557.)

CREATION OF GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE

(Act approved June 10, 1921) SEC. 301. There is created an establishment of the Government to be known as the General Accounting Office, which shall be independent of the executive departments and under the control and direction of the Comptroller General of the United States. The offices of Comptroller of the Treasury and Assistant Comptroller of the Treasury are abolished, to take effect July 1, 1921. All other officers and employees of the office of the Comptroller of the Treasury shall become officers and employees in the General Accounting Office at their grades and salaries on July 1, 1921, and all books, records, documents, papers, furniture, office equipment and other property of the office of the Comptroller of the Treasury shall become the property of the General Accounting Office. The Comptroller General is authorized to adopt a seal for the General ACcounting Office. (42 Stat. 23; 31 U.S. C. 41.)

*

Sec. 304. All powers and duties now conferred or imposed by law upon the Comptroller of the Treasury or the six auditors of the Treasury Department, and the duties of the Division of Bookkeeping and Warrants of the Office of the Secretary of the Treasury

56870044-24

relating to keeping the personal ledger accounts of disbursing and collecting officers, shall, so far as not inconsistent with this Act, be vested in and imposed upon the General Accounting Office and be exercised without direction from any other officer. The balances certified by the Comptroller General shall be final and conclusive upon the executive branch of the Government. The revision by the Comptroller General of settlements made by the six auditors shall be discontinued, except as to settlements made before July 1, 1921.

(42 Stat. 24; 31 U.S. C. 44.)

NO DENIAL OR ABRIDGMENT OF RIGHT BECAUSE OF SEX OR BECAUSE MARRIED

(Act approved September 22, 1922) 27 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the right of any woman to become a naturalized citizen of the United States shall not be denied or abridged because of her sex or because she is a married woman.18 (42 Stat. 1021-1022; 8 U. S. C. 367.)

EXEMPTION TO WOMAN WHO MARRIES A CITIZEN, OR WHOSE AUSBAND IS

NATURALIZED, AFTER THIS ACT Sec. 2. That an alien who marries a citizen of the United States, after the passage of this Act, as here amended, or an alien whose husband or wife is naturalized after the passage of this Act, as here amended, shall not become a citizen of the United States by reason of such marriage or naturalization; but, if eligible to citizenship, he or she may be naturalized upon full and complete compliance with all requirements of the naturalization laws, with the following exceptions:

(a) No declaration of intention shall be required. States and the one-year period of residence within the State or Territory where the naturalization court is held, he or she shall have resided continuously in the United States, Hawaii, Alaska, or Porto Rico for at least three years immediately preceding the filing of the petition. (48 Stat. 797; 8 U.S. C. 368.) 19

si -the United

17 Tbis Act, described in ch. 411, United States Statutes at Large (42 Stat. 1021), as "An Act relative to the naturalization and citizenship of married women," originally contained seven sections.

18 This section was repealed by sec. 504, Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1173; 8 U. S. C. 904), effective January 13, 1941. See sec. 302 of that Act, p. 359, for similar provisions.

19 Sec. 4, Act of May 24, 1934. repealed effective January 13, 1941, by sec. 504, Nationallty Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1173 ; 8 U. S. C. 901). See secs, 310 and 311, pp. 364-365, for similar provisions of that Act. This section originally read as follows in the Act of September 22, 1922 (42 Stat. 1022):

"SEC. 2. That any woman who marries a citizen of the United States after the passa ge of this Act, or any woman whose husband is naturalized after the passage of this Act, shall not become a citizen of the United States by reason of such marriage or paturalization ; but, if eligible to citizenship. she may be naturalized upon full and complete compliance with all requirements of the naturalization laws, with the following exceptions ; “(a) No declaration of intention shall be required;

"(b) in lieu of the Ove-year period of residence within the United States and the one year period of residence within the State or Territory where the naturalization court is held, she shall have resided continuously in the United States, Hawali, Alaska, or Puerto Rico for at least one year linmediately preceding the bling of the petition."

Sec. 5 of the repealing Act of May 24, 1934. provided that any right or privilege tberetofure acquired under the unamended form of sec. 2 should not be affected.

EFFECT OF MARRIAGE OF WOMAN CITIZEN AFTER THIS ACT; EXCEPTIONS

Sec. 3.20 (a) A woman citizen of the United States shall not cease to be a citizen of the United States by reason of her marriage after this section, as amended, takes effect, unless she makes a formal renunciation of her citizenship before a court having jurisdiction over naturalization of aliens. (46 Stat. 1511; 8 U. S. C. 9.) a

WOMAN MARRIED TO AN ALIEN INELIGIBLE TO CITIZENSHIP OR WHO IS

HERSELF RACIALLY INELIGIBLE (b) * Any woman who before this section, as amended, takes effect, has lost her United States citizenship by residence abroad after marriage to an alien or by marriage to an alien ineligible to citizenship may, if she has not acquired any other nationality by affirmative act, be naturalized in the manner prescribed in section 4 of this Act, as amended. Any woman who was a citizen of the United States at birth shall not be denied naturalization under section 4 on account of her race. (46 Stat. 1511-1512; 8 U. S. C. 369a.)

ORIGIN OF WOMAN'S CITIZENSHIP-LIMITATIONS ON NATURALIZATION UNDER

SECTION 22

(c) No woman shall be entitled to naturalization under section 4 of this Act, as amended, if her United States citizenship originated solely by reason of her marriage to a citizen of the United States or by reason of the acquisition of United States citizenship by her husband. (46 Stat. 1512; 8 U. S. C. 368a.)

20 This section in its unamended form originally read as follows in the Act of September 22, 1922 (42 Stat. 1022):

"SEC. 3. That a woman citizen of the United States shall not cease to be a citizen of the United States by reason of her marriage after the passage of this Act, unless she makes a formal renunciation of her citizenship before a court having jurisdiction over naturalization of aliens : Provided, That any woman citizen wbo marries an alien ineligible to citizenship shall cease to be a citizen of the United States. If at the termination of tbe marital status sbe is a citizen of the United States she shall retain ber citizensbíp regardless of her residence. If during the continuance of the marital status she resides continuously for two years in a foreign State of wbich her husband is a citizen or subject, or for five years continuously outside the United States, she sball thereafter be subject to the same presumption as is a naturalized citizen of the United States Under tbe second paragraph of section 2 of the Act entitled 'An Act in reference to the expatriation of citizens and their protection abroad, approved March 2, 1907. Nothing herein shall be construed to repeal or amend tbe provisions of Revised Statutes 1909 or of section 2 of the Expatriation Act of 1907 with reference to expatriation."

Sec. 1. Act of July 3, 1930 (46 Stat. $54), repealed the last three sentences of this section as it was originally enacted, but it was provided that such repeal should not restore citizenship lost under section 3 before such repeal.

a Sec. 4, Act of March 3, 1931, repealed effective January 13, 1941, by sec. 504, Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1173: 8 U. S. C. 904).

23 The act of July 2, 1932 (47 Stat. 571; 8 U. S. C. 368b), provided that for the purposes of this subdivision of sec. 3, Act of September 22, 1922, a woman born in Hawaii prior to June 14, 1900. should, if residing in the United States on the date of its enactment (July 2, 1932) be considered to have been a citizen of the United States at birth.

23 For a discussion of Act of June 25, 1936 (49 Stat. 1917), repealed effective January 13, 1941, by sec, 504, Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1174; 8 U. S. C. 904), providing that a native-born woman citizen who lost citizenship by marriage prior to September 22, 1922, shall be deemed to be a citizen, see p. 553.

The Act of June 27. 1934 (48 Stat. 1245 ; 48 U. S. C. 733b), which amended the Act of March 2, 1917, entitled “An Act to provide a civil government for Puerto Rico, and for other purposes," provided that any woman, native of Puerto Rico and permanently residing therein, who, prior to March 2, 1917, had lost her American nationality by reason of her marriage to an alien eligible to citizensbip. or by reason of the loss of the United States citizenship by ber husband, may be naturalized under tbe provisions of sec. 4 of the Act of September 22, 1922, entitled “An Act relative to the naturalization and citizensbip of married women," as amended.

EXEMPTIONS TO WOMAN WHO LOST CITIZENSHIP BY MARRIAGE PRIOR TO

THIS ACT-CERTIFICATE OF ARRIVAL SEC. 4.24 (a) A woman who has lost her United States citizenship by reason of her marriage to an alien eligible to citizenship or by reason of the loss of United States citizenship by her husband may, if eligible to citizenship and if she has not acquired any other nationality by affirmative act, be naturalized upon full and complete compliance with all requirements of the naturalization laws, with the following exceptions:

(1) No declaration of intention and no certificate of arrival shall be required, and no period of residence within the United States or within the county where the petition is filed shall be required;

(2) The petition need not set forth that it is the intention of the petitioner to reside permanently within the United States;

(3) The petition may be filed in any court having naturalization jurisdiction, regardless of the residence of the petitioner;

(4) If there is attached to the petition, at the time of filing, a certificate from a naturalization examiner stating that the petitioner has appeared before him for examination, the petition may be heard at any time after filing.

(b) After her naturalization such woman shall have the same citizenship status as if her marriage, or the loss of citizenship by her husband, as the case may be, had taken place after this section, as amended, takes effect. (46 Stat. 854; 8 U.S. C. 369.) 25

The amendment made by this section to section 4 of such Act of September 22, 1922, shall not terminate citizenship acquired under such section 4 before such amendment. (46 Stat. 854.28

Sec. 5.27 [Repealed by sec. 4, Act of March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1511– 1512).]

REPEALS AND THEIR EFFECT

“SEC. 6. That section 1994 of the Revised Statutes and section 4 of the Expatriation Act of 1907 are repealed. Such repeal shall not terminate citizenship acquired or retained under either of such sections nor restore citizenship lost under section 4 of the Expatriation Act of 1907." 28 (42 Stat. 1022; 8 U.S. C. 10.)

Sec. 7. That section 3 of the Expatriation Act of 1907 is repealed. Such repeal shall not restore citizenship lost under such section nor terminate citizenship resumed under such section. A woman who has resumed under such section citizenship lost by marriage shall, upon

the passage of this Act, have for all purposes the same citizenship status as immediately preceding her marriage. 28 (42 Stat. 1022; 8 U. S. C. 9.)

24 Sec. 4, Act of March 3, 1931 repealed by sec. 504, Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1173; 8 U. S. C. 904), effective January 13, 1941. See sec. 317 of that Act, p. 367, for provisions on this subject.

25 Sec. 2 (a), Act of July 3, 1930, repealed by sec. 504, Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1173 ; 8 U. S. C. 904), effective January 13, 1941. Sec. 4, Act of September 22, 1922 (42 Stat. 1022), originally read as follows:

"SEC. 4. That a woman who, before the passage of this Act, has lost her United States citizenship, by reason of her marriage to an alien eligible for citizenship, may be naturalized as provided by section 2 of this Act : Provided, That no certificate of arrival shall be required to be filed with

her petition it during the continuance of the marital status she shall have resided within the United States. After her naturalization she shall have the same citizenship status as if her marriage had taken place after the passage of this Act."

28 Sec. 2 (b). Act of July 3. 1930, repealed by sec. 504, Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1173;8 U. S. C. 904), effective January 13, 1941.

27 Prior to its repeal, this section read as follows: "SEC. 5. That no woman whose husband is not eligible to citizeaship shall be naturalized during the continuance of the martial status."

See footnote 28 on p. 527.

Sec. 8.30 [Repealed by sec. 5, Act of May 24, 1934 (48 Stat. 798), executed 12 noon (E. S.T.) May 24, 1934.]

GRANTING OF CITIZENSHIP TO NONCITIZEN INDIANS

[Act approved June 2, 1924] That all noncitizen Indians born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Indian to tribal or other property. (43 Stat. 253; 8 U. S. C. 3.) DISPOSITION OF LANDS OF EASTERN BANK OF CHEROKEE INDIANS;

CITIZENSHIP OF ALLOTTEES

[Act approved June 4, 1924) SEO. 19. That lands allotted under this Act shall not be alienable, either by voluntary or enforced sale by the allottee or his heirs or otherwise, for a period of twenty-five years from and after the date when the deed conveying such land to the allottee is recorded as directed herein: Provided, That upon the completion of the allotments and the recording of the deeds as herein directed each allottee shall become a citizen of the United States and a citizen of the particular State wherein he or she) may reside, with all the rights, privileges, and immunities of such citizens: * (43 Stat. 380.)

DECLARATION OF INTENTION ON OR BEFORE ELECTION DAY

(Act approved May 25, 1926) SEC. 1. That so much of the seventh subdivision of section 4 of the Act entitled “An Act to establish a Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization and to provide for a uniform rule for the naturalization of aliens throughout the United States," approved June 29, 1906, as amended, as reads as follows: “Provided, That it shall not be lawful to make a declaration of intention before the clerk of any

28 For text of sec. 1994 of the United States Revised Statutes see p. 451. For text of sec. 4, Act of March 2, 1907, see footnote 68 of that Act, p. 500.

* For text of sec. 3, Act of March 2, 1907, see footnote 67 of that Act, p. 500. 20 Prior to its repeal, this section read as follows:

"SEC. 8. That any woman eligible by race to citizenship who has married a citizen of the United States before the passage of this amendment, whose husband shall have been a native-born citizen and a member of the military or naval forces of the United States during the World War, and separated therefrom under honorable conditions ; if otherwise admissible, shall not be excluded from admission into the United States under section 3 of the Immigration Act of 1917, unless she be excluded under the provisions of that section relating tom

(a) Persons afflicted with a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease, except tuberculosis in any form ;

"(b) Polygamy;
"C) Prostitutes, procurers, or other like immoral persons ;

"(d) Persons convicted of crime: Provided, That no such wife shall be excluded because of offenses committed during legal infancy, while a minor under the age of twenty-one years, and for which the sentences imposed were less than three months, and which were committed more than five years previous to the date of the passage of this amendment;

"Se) Persons previously deported; “1) Contract laborers.

"That after admission to the United States she shall be subject to all other pro visions of this Act."

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