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duty of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, within a period of not more than four years after such sale or removal, upon satisfactory proof, to estimate the amount of tax which has been omitted to be paid, and to make an assessment therefor and certify the same to the collector. The tax so assessed shall be in addition to the penalties imposed by law for such sale or removal. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 9, 24 Stat. 211; Feb. 26, 1926, sec. 1109 (a), 44 Stat. 114; 26 U. S. C., sec. 971.)

1487. Imported oleomargarine.—That all oleomargarine imported from foreign countries shall, in addition to any import duty imposed on the same, pay an internal-revenue tax of fifteen cents per pound, such tax to be represented by coupon stamps as in the case of oleomargarine manufactured in the United States. The stamps shall be affixed and canceled by the owner or importer of the oleomargarine while it is in the custody of the proper custom-house officers; and the oleomargarine shall not pass out of the custody of said officers until the stamps have been so affixed and canceled, but shall be put up in wooden packages, each containing not less than ten pounds, as prescribed in this act for oleomargarine manufactured in the United States, before the stamps are affixed; and the owner or importer of such oleomargarine shall be liable to all the penal provisions of this act prescribed for manufacturers of oleomargarine manufactured in the United States. Whenever it is necessary to take any oleomargaine so imported to any place other than the public stores of the United States for the purpose of affixing and canceling such stamps, the collector of customs of the port where such oleomargarine is entered shall designato a bonded warehouse to which it shall be taken, under the control of such customs officer as such collector may direct; and every officer of customs who permits any such oleomargarine to pass out of his custody or control without compliance by the owner or importer thereof with the provisions of this section relating thereto, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, and imprisoned not less than six months nor more than three years. Every person who sells or offers for sale any imported oleomargarine, or oleomargarine purporting or claimed to have been imported, not put up in packages and stamped as provided by this act, shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not less than six months nor more than two years. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 10, 24 Stat. 211; 26 U. S. C., secs. 976, 978.)

1488. Purchasing oleomargarine when not branded or stamped.—That every person who knowingly purchases or receives for sale any oleomargarine which has not been branded or stamped according to law shall be liable to a penalty of fifty dollars for each such offense. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 11, 24 Stat. 211; 26 U. S. C., sec. 978.)

1489. Purchasing from manufacturer who has not paid tax.-That every person who knowingly purchases or receives for sale

any

oleomargarine from any manufacturer who has not paid the special tax shall be liable for each offense to a penalty of one hundred dollars, and to a forfeiture of all articles so purchased or received, or of the full value thereof. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 12, 24 Stat. 211; 26 U. S. C., secs. 978, 979.)

1490. Destruction of stamps on emptied packages.—That whenever any stamped package containing oleomargarine is emptied, it shall be the duty of the person in whose hands the same is to destroy utterly the stamps thereon; and any person who willfully neglects or refuses so to do shall for each such offense be fined not exceeding fifty dollars and imprisoned not less than ten days nor more than six months. And any person who fraudulently gives away or accepts from another, or who sells, buys, or uses for packing oleomargarine, any such stamped package, shall for each such offense be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars and be imprisoned not more than one year. Any revenue officer may destroy any emptied oleomargarine package upon which the tax-paid stamp is found. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 13, 24 Stat. 211; 26 U. S. Č., secs. 975, 978.)

1491. Chemists and miscroscopists; salary; decisions.—That there shall be in the office of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue an analytical chemist and a microscopist, who shall each be appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Commissioner of Internal Revenue may, whenever in his judgment the necessities of the service so require, employ chemists and microscopists, to be paid such compensation as he may deem proper, not exceeding in the aggregate any appropriation made for that purpose. And such Commissioner is authorized to decide what substances, extracts, mixtures, or compounds which may be submitted for his inspection in contested cases are to be taxed under this act; and his decision in matters of taxation under this act shall be final. The Commissioner may also decide whether any substance made in imitation or semblance of butter, and intended for human consumption, contains ingredients deleterious to the public health; but in case of doubt or contest his deci. sions in this class of cases may be appealed from to a board hereby constituted for the purpose, and composed of the Surgeon-General of the Army, the Surgeon-General of the Navy, and the Secretary of Agriculture; and the decisions of this board shall be final in the premises. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 14, 24 Stat. 212; Feb. 9, 1889, 25 Stat. 659; 26 U. S. C., secs. 1717, 1718, 981.)

1492. Oleomargarine; forfeiture; removal of stamp.—That all packages of oleomargarine subject to tax under this act that shall be found without stamps or marks as herein provided, and all oleomargarine intended for human consumption which contains ingredients adjudged, as hereinbefore provided, to be deleterious to the public health, shall be forfeited to the United States. Any person who shall willfully remove or deface the stamps, marks, or brands on a package containing oleomargarine taxed as provided herein shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars nor more than two thousand dollars, and by imprisonment for not less than thirty days nor more than six months. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 15, 24 Stat. 212; 26 U. S. C., secs. 978, 979.)

1493. Same; exportation; regulations.—That oleomargarine may be removed from the place of manufacture for export to a foreign country without payment of tax or affixing stamps thereto, under such regulations and the filing of such bonds and other security as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, may prescribe. Every person who shall export oleomargarine shall brand upon every tub, firkin, or other package containing such article the word “oleomargarine”, in plain Roman letters not less than one-half inch square. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 16, 24 Stat. 212; 26 U. S. C., sec. 977.)

1494. Same; fraud by manufacturer - That whenever any person engaged in carrying on the business of manufacturing oleomargarine defrauds, or attempts to defraud, the United States of the tax on the oleomargarine produced by him, or any part thereof, he shall forfeit the factory and manufacturing apparatus used by him, and all oleomargarine and all raw material for the production of oleomargarine found in the factory and on the factory premises, and shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not less than six months nor more than three years. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 17, 24 Stat. 212; 26 U. S. C., secs. 978, 979.)

1495. Failure to comply with law.—That if any manufacturer of oleomargarine, any dealer therein, or any importer or exporter thereof shall knowingly or willfully omit, neglect, or refuse to do, or cause to be done, any of the things required by law in the carrying on or conducting of his business, or shall do anything by this act prohibited, if there be no specific penalty or punishment imposed by any other section of this act for the neglecting, omitting, or refusing to do, or for the doing or causing to be done, the thing required or prohibited, he shall pay a penalty of one thousand dollars; and if the person so offending be the manufacturer of or a wholesale dealer in oleomargarine, all the oleomargarine owned by him, or in which he has any interest as owner, shall be forfeited to the United States. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 18, 24 Stat. 212; 26 U. S. C., secs. 978, 979.)

1496. Recovery of fines.-- That all fines, penalties, and forfeitures imposed by this act may be recovered in any court of competent jurisdiction. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 19, 24 Stat. 212; 26 U. S. C., sec. 980.)

1497. Regulations.—That the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, may make ali needful regulations for the carrying into effect of this act. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 20, 24 Stat. 212; 26 U. S. C., sec. 1691.)

1498. Effective date of Act.—That this act shall go into effect or the ninetieth day after its passage; and all wooden packages containing ten or more pounds of oleomargarine found on the premises of any dealer on or after the ninetieth day succeeding the date of the passage of this act shall be deemed to be taxable under section eight of this act, and shall be taxed, and shall have affixed thereto the stamps, marks, and brands required by this act or by regulations made pursuant to this act; and for the purposes of securing the affixing of the stamps, marks, and brands required by this act, the oleomargarine shall be regarded as having been manufactured and sold, or removed from the manufactory for consumption or use, on or after the day this act takes effect; and such stock on hand at the time of the taking effect of this act may be stamped, marked, and branded under special regulations of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, approved by the Secretary of the Treasury; and the Commissioner of Internal Revenue may authorize the holder of such packages to mark and brand the same and to affix thereto the proper tax-paid stamps. (Aug. 2, 1886, sec. 21, 24 Stat. 212.)

1499. Oleomargarine, adulterated butter, etc.; transported into a State subject to its police powers.—That all articles known as oleomargarine, butterine, imitation, process, renovated, or adulterated butter, or imitation cheese, or any substance in the semblance of butter or cheese not the usual product of the dairy and not made exclusively of pure and unadulterated milk or cream, transported into any State or Territory or the District of Columbia, and remaining therein for use, consumption, sale, or storage therein, shall upon the arrival within the limits of such State or Territory or the District of Columbia, be subject to the operation and effect of the laws of such State or Territory or the District of Columbia, enacted in the exercise of its police powers to the same extent and in the same manner as though such articles or substances had been produced in such State or Territory or the District of Columbia, and shall not be exempt therefrom by reason of being introduced therein in original packages or otherwise. (May 9, 1902, sec. 1, 32 Stat. 193; 21 U. S. C., sec. 25.)

ADULTERATED AND RENOVATED BUTTER

1500. Definitions; special taxes; carrying on business without paying; manufacturer's statement of business; packing and sale of adulterated butter; label on package; stamps; oleomargarine laws applicable to adulterated butter.—That for the purpose of this Act “butter" is hereby defined to mean an article of food as defined in "An Act defining butter, also imposing a tax upon and regulating the manufacture, sale, importation, and exportation of oleomargarine”, approved August second, eighteen hundred and eighty six [26 U. S. C., sec. 990]; that “adulterated butter" is hereby defined to mean a grade of butter produced by mixing, reworking, rechurning in milk or cream, refining, or in any way producing a uniform, purified, or improved product from different lots or parcels of melted or unmelted butter or butterfat, in which any acid, alkali, chemical, or any substance whatever is introduced or used for the purpose or with the effect of deodorizing or removing therefrom rancidity, or any butter or butterfat with which there is mixed any substance foreign to butter as herein defined, with intent or effect of cheapening in cost the product or any butter in the manufacture or manipulation of which any process or material is used with intent or effect of causing the absorption of abnormal quantities of water, milk, or cream; that process butter” or “renovated butter" is hereby defined to mean butter which has been subjected to any process by which it is melted, clarified, or refined and made to resemble genuine butter, always excepting "adulterated butter" as defined by this Act.

That special taxes are imposed as follows:

Manufacturers of process or renovated butter shall pay fifty dollars per year and manufacturers of adulterated butter shall pay six hundred dollars per year. Every person who engages in the production of process or renovated butter or adulterated butter as a business shall be considered to be a manufacturer thereof.

Wholesale dealers in adulterated butter shall pay a tax of four hundred and eighty dollars per annum, and retail dealers in adulterated butter shall pay a tax of forty-eight dollars per annum. Every person who sells adulterated butter in less quantities than ten pounds at one time shall be regarded as a retail dealer in adulterated butter.

Every person who sells adulterated butter shall be regarded as a dealer in adulterated butter. And sections thirty-two hundred and thirty-two, thirty-two hundred and thirty-three, thirty-two hundred and thirty-four, thirty-two hundred and thirty-five, thirty-two hundred and thirty-six, thirty-two hundred and thirty-seven, thirty-two hundred and thirty-eight, thirty-two hundred and thirty-nine, thirtytwo hundred and forty, thirty-two hundred and forty-one, and thirtytwo hundred and forty-three of the Revised Statutes of the United States are, so far as applicable, made to extend to and include and apply to the special taxes imposed by this section and to the person upon whom they are imposed.

That every person who carries on the business of a manufacturer of

process or renovated butter or adulterated butter without having paid the special tax therefor, as required by law, shall, besides being liable to the payment of the tax, be fined not less than one thousand and not more than five thousand dollars; and every person who carries on the business of a dealer in adulterated butter without having paid the special tax therefor, as required by law, shall, besides being liable to the payment of the tax, be fined not less than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars for each offense.

That every manufacturer of process or renovated butter or adulterated butter shall file with the collector of internal revenue of the district in which his manufactory is located such notices, inventories, and bonds, shall keep such books and render such returns of material and products, shall put up such signs and affix such number of his factory, and conduct his business under such surveillance of officers and agents as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, may by regulation require. But the bond required of such manufacturer shall be with sureties satisfactory to the collector of internal revenue, and in a penal sum of not less than five hundred dollars; and the sum of said bond may be increased from time to time and additional sureties required at the discretion of the collector or under instructions of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.

That all adulterated butter shall be packed by the manufacturer thereof in firkins, tubs, or other wooden, tin-plate, or paper packages not before used for that purpose, containing, or encased in a manufacturer's package made from any of such materials of, not less than ten pounds, and marked, stamped, and branded as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, shall prescribe, and all sales made by manufacturers of adulterated butter shall be in original, stamped packages.

Dealers in adulterated butter must sell only original or from original stamped packages, and when such original stamped packages are broken the adulterated butter sold from same shall be placed in suitable wooden, tin-plate, or paper packages, which shall be marked and branded as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, shall prescribe. Every person who knowingly sells or offers for sale, or delivers or offers to deliver, any adulterated butter in any other form than in new wooden, tin-plate, or paper packages as above described, or who

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