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Per cent of foreign-born male employees in manufacturing, farming or farm labor, general labor and other occupations, before coming to the United States,

by race.

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Upon referring to the totals in the foregoing table it is at once seen that only 15.3 per cent of the male industrial workers had any training or experience in manufacturing before coming to this country. This showing is even more unfavorable as regards the races of recent immigration from southern and eastern Europe, when it is noted that 49.8 per cent of the English, 28.1 per cent of the German, 49.9 per cent of the French, 36.4 per cent of the Scotch, and 58.2 per cent of the Welsh were engaged in manufacturing abroad. The large proportion of Cubans and Spaniards who were in manufacturing before coming to this country arises from the fact that they were trained cigar makers. Only 2.7 per cent of the Croatians, 9.5 per cent of the North Italians, 13.3 per cent of the South Italians, 5.5 per cent of the Lithuanians, 7 per cent of the Magyars, 7.6 per cent of the Poles, 8.3 per cent of the Russians, 4.5 per cent of the Slovaks, and 5.7 per cent of the Slovenians had any experience in manufacturing establishments before their arrival in the United States. The greater number of wage-earners of foreign birth now employed in the mines and manufacturing establishments of this country were farmers or farm laborers abroad. This condition of affairs is more marked in the case of the southern and eastern Europeans, 80.5 per cent of the Croatians, 54 per cent of the Greeks, 50.5 per cent of the North Italians, 46.8 per cent of the South Italians, 76.2 per cent of the Lithuanians, 55.7 per cent of the Magyars, 68.1 per cent of the Poles, 70.2 per cent of the Portuguese, 68.3 per cent of the Russians, 72.6 per cent of the Slovaks, and 65.2 per cent of the Slovenians were engaged in agricultural pursuits in their native countries. The only exception to the general tendency exhibited by the southern and eastern European immigrants is found in the case of the Hebrews, both Russian and other, 61.7 per cent of the former and 55.3 per cent of the latter having been employed in manufacturing before coming to this country. Only a very small proportion, amounting to 2.5 per cent, of the total foreign-born wage-earners were in trade or business while abroad. The large proportion of the races from Great Britain and northern Europe shown as being in other occupations than those specified before coming to the United States is principally due to the fact that the members of these races who were miners in their native countries are included in this classification.

The table which immediately follows shows, by race, the per cent of 12,968 female industrial workers who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States.

TABLE 18.--Per cent of foreign-born female employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the total number of women for whom information was secured, the greater proportion, or 44.2 per cent, were farmers or farm laborers abroad, the employment of women in this occupation being especially marked in the case of the southern and eastern European races. On the other hand, almost one-third, or 32.5 per cent, of the total number were employed in manufacturing in their native countries, this industry being characteristic of the representatives of Canada, Great Britain, and northern Europe. Only a small per cent of the total number were engaged in domestic service, while 13.4 per cent were employed in sewing, embroidering, and lace making. As compared with other races, the Bohemians and Moravians, Portuguese, Irish, and Slovenians were more extensively employed in domestic service.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION AT THE PRESENT TIME OF INDUSTRIAL WORKERS

AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

The table which follows on page 100 sets forth the general distribution, according to principal occupations, of the wage-earners of both sexes in the households studied. It shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of persons in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were engaged

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Per cent of foreign-born female employees in manufacturing, farming or farm labor, domestic service, sewing, embroidering or lace making, and other

occupations before coming to the United States, by race.

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SEWING EMBROID-
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MAKING

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Table 19.Per cent of males 16 years of age or over in each specified industry, by general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(The main headings used in this table follow the classifications of the United States Census with these

modifications: General Labor is here separate from Domestic and Personal Service; Fishing, Mining, and Quarrying are each separate from Manufacturing and Mechanical Pursuits; Trade and Transportation are distinct from each other. This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

Per cent in

Num

ber reGeneral nativity and race porting of individual.

complete data.

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Native-born of native 'ather:

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Native-born of foreign
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Bohemian and Mora-

vian.
Canadian, French.
Dutch..
English.
German.
Hebrew
Irish
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar
Polish...
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Slovak.
Swedish.

Welsh..
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Mora-

vian...
Brava..
Bulgarian
Canadian, French
Croatian.
Cuban.
Ditch..
English
Finnish
Flemish.
French
German.
Greek
Hebrew
Irish
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese..
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Magyar.
Mexican
Norwegian
Polish.
Portuguese
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish
Swedish.

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