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Dutch, French Canadians, and Swedes each shows a larger proportion who gained a livelihood in some manner from farms than from all other occupations, while the reverse is true of the other races of older immigration. By way of illustration, the Scotch show 97.2, French 92.9, Welch 87.5, and English 86.4 per cent who were employed for wages in occupations other than as farm or general laborers, the proportions of the other races of older immigration ranging from 64.7 per cent of the Flemish to 53.3 per cent of the Mexicans. On the other hand, with the exception of the Cubans and Spaniards, the proportions of the more recent immigrant races who were employed for wages in occupations other than as farm or general laborers range from 66.5 per cent of the Hebrews to 0.5 per cent of the Turkish. Among the more recent immigrants the extremely large proportion, or 90.7 per cent, of the Turkish race who were employed as farm laborers without wages is in striking contrast with the proportions shown by the other races, while among the older immigrants so employed the Irish, French Canadians, Swedes, and Norwegians show proportions ranging from 36.7 to 21.7 per cent, as compared with proportions of the Germans, Dutch, Flemish, Mexicans, English, and Welsh ranging from 11.3 to 1.4 per cent. No French or Scotch among the older immigrants and no Cubans or Macedonians among the more recent immigrants were employed as farm laborers without wages. Among the more recent immigrants over four-tenths of the Bulgarians and Macedonians, slightly less than four-tenths of the Portuguese, and slightly less than three-tenths of the Japanese, as compared with proportions ranging from 24.3 per cent of the Croatians to 0.9 per cent of the Hebrews, were farmers for profit before coming to the United States. Among the older immigrants, on the other hand, the French Canadians show the largest proportion of farmers for profit, or 11.7 per cent, the proportions of the others ranging from 6.6 per cent of the Irish to 1.2 per cent of the Flemish. No Bravas or Cubans among the more recent immigrants and no English, Norwegians, or Scotch among the older immigrants were farmers for profit before coming to this country. With the exception of the Armenian, Hebrew, and Macedonian, with proportions ranging from 21.5 to 12.1 per cent, no race shows a proportion equal to 8 per cent who were engaged in occupations other than as farmers for profit before coming to the United States.

Considering the Bohemians and Moravians and Finns, who were not included in either the older or more recent immigrant group, it will be noted that, as regards those who worked for wages, the latter show considerably larger proportions who were employed as farm or general laborers, but a very much smaller proportion employed in all other occupations, than the former. In other words, only a very small proportion of the Finns, or 15.7 per cent, as compared with 57.3 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians who were employed for wages, had any industrial training before coming to the United States. No Finns were employed in occupations other than as farm laborers without wages, and only 0.8 per cent were engaged in occupations other than as farmers for profit, as compared with 3.3 and 4.8 per cent, respectively, of the Bohemians and Moravians.

48296-VOL 19–11—7

The following table shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country: Table 15.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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1.3 25.5

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134 344

23 378 584 45 71 344 117

67 131 692 168 711 497

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Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian
Brava.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban..
Dutch.
English
Finnish
Flemish
French.
German
Greek
Hebrew
Irish..
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian..
Magyar.
Mexican.
Norwegian.
Polish..
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish.
Swedish
Syrian.
Welsh.

207

11 109

86 183 196 179 189

115 181

10 329 326 40 35 211 88 36 86 423 119 570 382

312
1, 115

362
564
21

11
1,050
218
30
36
122
68
46
518
66
17
206
150
55

56 36 13 28 71 90 243 137

1

3 561

5 31 34 320

15

6 10

1,416

790 900 26

24 2,072 259 68 78 629 93

65 1, 159 161

20 391 166 61

85.8
52.6
43.5
87.0
55. 8
&S. 9
49.3
61.3
75. 2
53. 7
65.6
61.1
70.8
80.2
76.9
53.9
78.7
45.8
62.7
80.8
45.8
50.7
84.2
44. 1
46.2
19. 4
73.1
70.8
44.7
41.0
85.0
52.3
90. 4
90.2

12.7 32.3 52. 2 11.1 16.8 11.1 47.9 37.8 22.2 43. 3 33.6 29.9

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8.8 10.3 28.5 26.9 12.3 30.9 13.0 10.0 37.8 7.8 9.8

10 442 33

2.6 3.0

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1.8 5.6 12.3

6.4 30.8 15.2

3.8 12.5 27. 1

1.9 45.6 43.6 50.9

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10 278 74

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This table shows that very nearly 60 per cent of the 13,315 foreignborn females concerning whom information was obtained were without occupation and only 1 per cent worked for profit, while 22.5 and 16.9 per cent were employed for wages and without wages, respectively, before coming to the United States.

Considering only those races represented by 50 or more females and separating them into two groups, the first to include the older, and the second the more recent, immigrants, it will be noted that the former show a slightly higher average without occupation, a considerably higher average who worked for wages, and a much lower average employed without wages before coming to the United States than do the latter. Among the older immigrants without occupation before coming to the United States the range is from 90.2 per cent of the Welsh to 49.3 per cent of the Dutch, while among the more recent 19.4 per cent of the Ruthenians. On the other hand, of those working for and without wages the proportions of the older immigrants range from 47.9 per cent of the Dutch to 9.8 per cent of the Welsh and from 8.1 per cent of the Germans to 0.3 per cent of the English, respectively, the French, Scotch, and Welsh reporting no proportion working without wages. While of the more recent immigrants the proportions working for wages range from 31.6 per cent of the North Italians to 6.5 per cent of the Greeks and the proportions working without wages before coming to the United States range from 50.9 per cent of the Ruthenians to 1.5 per cent of the Armenians, the Syrians report no proportion who worked without wages. As between the Bohemians and Moravians and Finns, who are not included in either of the groups above mentioned, it will be noted that the former show considerably larger proportions working for and without wages and a much smaller proportion without occupation than do the latter. No race shows a proportion who worked for profit in excess of 2.7 per cent.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country: Table 16.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who vere 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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Armenian...
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bravs.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban..
Dutch
English
Finnish
Flemish.
French
German.
Greek
Hebrew

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1.5 21.5 30.4 3. 7 6.2

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4.8

134 85.8
314 52.6

23 43.5
378 87.0
584 55.8
45 89.9
71 49.3
314

61 3 117 75 2

67 53. 7 131 65 6 692

61 1 168

70.8 711 80.2 497 76.9

579 53.9 1, 116 78.7 790

45.8 900 62.7 26 80.8

24 45.8 2.072 50.7 259 84. 2 68 44.1 78 46.2 629 19.4 93 73.1

65 70.8 1, 159 44. 7 161 41.0

20 83.0 394 52.3 166

90.4 61 90.2

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12.7 32.3 52. 2 11.1 16.8 11.1 47 9 37 8 22. 2 43 3 33 6 29.9

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Italian, North.
Italian, South..
Lithuanian.
Magyar
Mexican.
Norwegian
Polish
Portuguese
Roumanian
Russian..
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish
Swedish..
Syrian
Welsh.

11.2
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The foregoing, table shows that of the 13,315 foreign-born females concerning whom information was obtained, 59.7 per cent were without occupation, 22.5 per cent were working for wages, 16.9 per cent without wages, and only 1 per cent for profit, before coming to the United States. Concerning the occupations of these females abroad, it will be noted that the proportion who were working for wages is almost equally distributed among farm laborers, domestic service, and all other occupations, and that the proportion who worked for profit is almost equally distributed as between farmers and all other occupations. On the other hand, those working without wages show less than 1 per cent employed in all occupations other than as farm laborers, the proportion in the last-mentioned occupation amounting to 16.4 per cent.

If the older, and more recent, immigrants be arranged in separate groups, and an average made for each occupation, it will be found that, with the exception of slightly larger averages for the older than for the more recent immigrants in domestic service and in all other occupations for wages, and a much smaller average for the older than for the more recent immigrants employed as farm laborers without wages, the averages for the older and more recent immigrants in each specified occupation average very nearly the same.

No Armenians, Cubans, Hebrews, Spaniards, or Syrians, and but 0.6 per cent of the Greeks and 0.8 per cent of the Portuguese, as compared with 21.7 per cent of the Bravas, 21 per cent of the Ruthenians, 14.4 per cent of the Slovaks, and 12.8 per cent of the Lithuanians, among the more recent immigrants, were employed as farm laborers for wages before coming to the United States. Among the older immigrants, on the other hand, no English, French, Scotch, or Welsh, and, as compared with 22.5 per cent of the Dutch and 20.9 per cent of the Flemish, only very small proportions of the other races, were employed as farm laborers abroad." With the exception of the Bravas and Slovaks, 30.4 and 12.5 per cent of whom, respectively, were in domestic service, the proportion of no other race among the more recent immigrants equals 10 per cent; and with the exception of the North Italians, Hebrews, Armenians, and Cubans with proportions ranging from 20.6 to 11.1 per cent, the proportion of no other race among the more recent immigrants equals 7 per cent. Among the older immigrants, the Swedes show the largest proportion, or 26.1 per cent, in domestic service, closely followed by the Norwegians and Dutch, who, in turn, are closely followed by the Germans with 14.9 per cent, the proportions of the other races ranging from 9.7 per cent of the Irish to 3.1 per cent of the French. In all other occupations for wages among the older immigrants, the English with 32.3 per cent show a slightly larger proportion than the French, a considerably larger proportion than the Scotch, and a much larger proportion than is shown by any other race in this group.

With the exception of 12.5 per cent of the Norwegians and 9.1 per cent of the Swedes who were employed as farm laborers without wages, only very small proportions of the older immigrant races are found in the other specified occupations; and only very small proportions of the more recent immigrant races were employed before coming to the United States in occupations other than as farm laborers without wages, or in any occupation for profit. The more recent immigrants, however, who were employed as farm laborers in the case of the Roumanians, Slovenians, and Russians over 40 per cent, and in the case of the Lithuanians, Poles, Croatians, and Greeks over 30, 26, 25, and 20 per cent, respectively. The Slovaks also show a proportion slightly in excess of 20 per cent, while the proportions of the other more recent immigrants so employed range from 15.4 per cent of the Servians to 1.3 per cent of the Hebrews.

The Bohemians and Moravians and Finns are not included in either the older or more recent immigrant group, but wherever a proportion in any occupation is shown, that of the former exceeds that of the latter, the difference being much more marked among those who were farm laborers without wages.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES. The following table shows, by race, the per cent of 181,330 foreignborn male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States: TABLE 17.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

Race.

Per cent who were engaged in-
Number
reporting
complete Manufac.

Farming

General or farm

Trade. data. turing.

labor. labor.

Other occupations.

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Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.
Croatian
Cuban
Danish,
Dutch
English.
Finnish.
Flemish.
French
German.
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian
Hebrew, Other.
Herzegovinian.
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese
Lithuanian
Macedonian
Magyar..
Mexican.
Montenegrin.
Norwegian.
Polish
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian..
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian
Spanish.
Swedish.
Syrian
Turkish..
Welsh

470 2,807

823 4,617

938 7, 508 2.349

448

894 8,436 3, 262

124 1,127 12,389 4, 138 2,777

964

190 7,306 10, 362 12, 460

121 8, 433

317 8,682

167 226

533 32,880 2, 472 1.695 5.663

591 1, 867 1, 213 17,707 3,857 1, 202 4.251

654

282 1,012

17.4 28.7

3. 9 13.6 27.3

2.7 87. 2 23. 4 14. 2 49.8

4.8 71.0 49.4 29.1

5. 1 61.7 55.3

1.1 14. 2

9.5 13.3 8.3 5.5 3.8 7.0 8.4 1.3 19.3 7.6 2.8 5. 1 8.3 4.7 36. 4 3. 7 4.5 5. 7 49.1 19.7 12.7

3. 9 58.2

34. 3 31.1 70.5 61.5 31.8 80.5

7.0 30, 4 42.6

3.0 71.0 9. 7 8.6 28.8 54. 0 3.7 9.1 53. 2 52. 2 50.5 46.8 61.2 76. 2 62.5 65.7 21.6 81.9 18,4 68.1 70. 2 74.3 68.3 79.0

4. 2 75. 7 72.6 65.2 27.9 41.7 52. 1 64. 5 2.6

4.9 10.0 10.0 6. 2 6.4 7.6

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7.8 10.5 12.0 6.3

4.4 11.6 11.6 7.1 3. 2 7.3 5.0 7.4 3.0

2.7 8.3 4.8 3.7 .9 .8 1.8 2.9 11.8 20.0 24. 4

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34. 5 28. 2 12.5 15.7 30.3 8.5 2.9 30. 1 29.4 37.6 14. 2

8.9 34.3 29.7 17.3 13.3 9.1

1.1 17.0 24. 4 21.6 8.3 8.7 11.0 13.7 56.3

8.8 55. 2 12.6 15.8 7.2 9.7 9.3 50.8

7.1 10.9 20.9

7.9 29.2 21.9 11.3 33. 7

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