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Table 12.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number

of years, by sex and race-Continued.

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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal

occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States, Principal occupation at the present time of industrial workers and members of their households—Average daily, weekly, and hourly earnings—Annual earnings of male

heads of families—Annual earnings of all male wage-earners in the households studiedAnnual earnings of all female wage-earners in the households studied--Annual family income-Sources of family income—[Text Tables 13 to 41 and General

Tables 7 to 26). INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED. The following table shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of

oming to this country: Table 13.—Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

[graphic]

31.1 9.8

.0 48.0 14.3 25. 1 2.4 2.4 1.7 11.6 3.5 2.6 8.4 28.1 16.7

7.3 17.5 22.6 32.4 12. 2 53. 8. 19.7 6.7 4.3 10.8 11.8 38.3 12. 2 11.9

.0 15.9 11.7 17.3 3.6 4.6 21.0 3.6 1.4

51.1

29.5

16.2

An examination of this table discloses the fact that of the 21,696 foreign-born males concerning whom information was obtained only 3.2 per cent were without occupation before coming to the United States. On the other hand, 51.1 per cent worked for wages, 29.5 per cent without wages, and 16.2 per cent worked for profit. For the reason that only the Syrians, Armenians, Japanese, and Greeks, with proportions ranging from 18.8 to 10.4 per cent, show proportions without occupation abroad in excess of 10 per cent, the discussion of the industrial condition of these males before coming to the United States will be confined to those working for and without wages and for profit.

In view of the fact that under these several heads a marked contrast exists as between many of the races, the most important of these races in point of number will be separated into two groups, the first to include the older and the second to include the more recent immigrants to the United States.

Among the older immigrants it will be noted that, with the exception of the French, none of whom worked without wages, and the Scotch, none of whom worked for profit, each race shows a certain proportion employed in one way or another before coming to this country. Of those who worked for wages the Scotch show the largest proportion, or 98.1 per cent, and the Irish the smallest proportion, or 44.9 per cent. On the other hand, the Irish show the largest proportion, or 38 per cent, and the Scotch the smallest proportion, or 0.9 per cent, who worked without wages. Concerning those who worked for profit, the contrast is by no means so marked, the largest proportion, or 14.3 per cent, being shown by the French Canadians, and the smallest,' or 1.4 per cent, by the Welsh. Over nine-tenths of the French, English, Flemish, and Welsh, and very nearly this proportion of the Dutch, and over seven-tenths of the Germans, six-tenths of the Swedes, and over one-half, or 52.7 per cent, of the French Canadians, were employed for wages before coming to the United States. Aside from the Irish, the next largest proportions, 25 and 24.3 per cent, who worked without wages abroad, are shown by the French Canadians and Swedes, respectively.

Considering the more important races of recent immigration, or those represented by not less than 50 persons in the above table, it will be noted that the Hebrew alone shows a proportion in excess of 60 per cent who worked for wages abroad, while the smallest proportion, or 5.2 per cent, thus employed is shown by the Turkish race. Slightly less than six-tenths of the South Italians, North Italians, and Magyars, slightly over one-half of the Portuguese and Slovaks, exactly one-half of the Syrians, and slightly below one-half, or 47.8 per cent, of the Poles were employed for wages abroad. With the exception of these races just mentioned, each race of more recent immigration considered in this discussion shows a smaller proportion employed for wages than do the Irish, who, as previously stated, show the smallest proportion among the older immigrants, the proportions in many instances being considerably below that of the Irish. No Macedonians and only 5.1 per cent of the Hebrews, as compared with 90.7 per cent of the Turks, worked without wages before coming to this country, while the proportions of Armenians, Bulgarians, South Italians, and Syrians so employed, as compared with the proportion

other hand, it will be noted that, as compared with the older immigrants, with a few exceptions, the proportions of the more recent immigrants who worked without wages are comparatively large. This is equally true as between the older and more recent immigrants who worked for profit, the proportions of the more recent immigrants working for profit ranging from 53.8 per cent of the Macedonians to 3.6 per cent of the Turks.

Considering the Bohemians and Moravians and Finns, who are not included in either the older or more recent immigrant group, it will be noted that the proportions of the former follow more closely those of the older immigrants than do the latter.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming:

TABLE 14.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who

were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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7.3

2.4

Armerian.
Bobemian and Moravian.
Bravu.
Bulgarian.
Cana lian, French.
Croatian
Caban.
Dutch
English.
Finnish
Flemish.
French.
German..
Greek.
Hebrer
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Japanese
Lithuanian.
Mardonian.

21.5
4.8

.0
4.1
2. 7

.8 2.4

0 1. 7

.8 2. 4 1.3 2. 2 7. 6 15. 8

..7 2. 2

177 400

48 735 412 983 41 82 412 121

85 155 890 90-1 780 534

853 2.602

74 1.441

91 1,571

45

23
3,346

272
119
156
&SO
107

195
1.627
197

56 452 272 439 72

8.5 15.0 77. 1 10.5 11. 2 12.3

.0 51.2

4.4 30.6 22. 4

.6 12.7 7. 5 1.9 15. 7 19.0 25. 1

0 30. 7

6. 6

14.1 2.5 6. 3 11 80 1. 4 2.4 3. 7 2. 9 2.5 1.2 2.6 3. 6 10.4 9.1 9.7 2. 2 2.8 13. 5

.8 3. 3 1. 2

.0 & 7 1. 9 5. 9

.7 1. 9 1.8 .9 .5 1. 2

.0 1.8 4. 2 188

.5 5.6

1.1
32. 8

42. 4 7.3
1.0 27. 3 73. 3 11. 3

.0 8.3 85. 4 4. 2
1.8 23. 1 35. 4 15. 1
6. 6 35.0 52 7 24.0
1.1 13.0 26.4 46. 9
.0 90. 2 90.2
30. 3
89.0

4. 9
86.4 93.2 1.7
9.9 15. 7 50. 2 29. S
5. 9 64.7 92. 9 2. +
1. 3 92. 9 91.8 .0
4. 7

56. 1 73. 5 11.3 1.2 20. 7 29.4 | 31.1

.6 60.5 69. 1 2.4 6.0 23. 2 44.9 36.7 7.2 32. 2 58.4 21. 3 4.3 29.8

59. 2

13. 6.
1.4 16.2 17.6 36.5
..9 9. 2 40.9 46. 0
.0 20.9 42.9 .0
2.9 22. 1 57. ? 21.5
8.9

53. 3 91.1 2. 21
.0! 60.9 65. 2 21. 7
3.0 20. 7 47. 8 38 7
4. 4 25, 7 53. 7 27. 6.
1.3 7. 4 27.5 33. 6
2.6 19. 9 35. 9

50.0
.7 6.0 36.9 48. 9
.9 97. 2 98 1 .0
1.5 8.7

28. 2 55. 4 3.8 20. 3 52.6 34. 0 1.0 9. 1 24. 4

58. 4 .0 69. 6

76.8

14. 3 2.9 41.6 66. 8 23. 5 1.8 43. 8

50.0 10.3 .0

5. 2 90. 7 1. 4 87.5

90.3 1. 4

5. 1 12.4 9. 6
3. 3 11.5 5.0
4. 2 8.3 .0

.4 15.5 43.9
1.0 25.0 11. 7

.1 47.0 24. 3 4. 9 4. 9 ..0 .0 4. 9

2.4 .5 2. 2

.0 .0 29. 8 10.7 .0 2. 4 1. 2

0 .0 1. 3 3. 1 14. 5 6. 2 1.0 32. 1 20.5 2. 7 5. 1 .9 1. 3 38 0 6.6

.6 21.9 15. 2 1.7 15. 3 16.0 .0 36.5 27.0 .1 46. 1 11. 6 .0 .0 41.8 321.8 i 180 .0 2. 2

4. 4 0 21.7 0

8 39 5 10.0 1.1 28. 7 10. 7 .0 33. 6 36.2 .0 50.0 12.2 .5 49. 3 11. 6 .9 .9 .0

0 55. 4 12.8 .5 34, 5 10.8 .0 58 4 15. 2 3.6 17.9 3. 6 9 24. 3

4.6 0 10.3 14. 7 0 90.7

3.6 1.4 2.8 1.4

31.1 9.8

.0 480 14,3 25. 1 2.4 2. 4 1.7 11. 6 3. 5 2.6 8. 4 281 16. 7

7.3 17.5 22.6 32. 4 12. 2 53. 8 • 19.7

6. 7 4. 3 10.8 11.8 38. 3 12. 2 11.9

.0 15. 9 11.7 17. 3 3. 6

4.6 21.0 3. 6 1. 4

22.0

Verican
Nortepian.
Polish,
Portugiese
Kocmanian
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Ser dan
Slovak
Slovenian
Sparks.
Spish.
Syria.
Trish.
Welsh.

5.4

.6 12. 1

1. 7 2. 2 4. 3

.9 1.1 2.0 .0

3 .0 3.1

.9 2.0 .0 .0 6. 3

.0 .0

32. 2
28. 9

4.3
24.1
23. 5
18. 8
13. 5
30. 2

.0 17.9 28. 3 11. 2

7. 1 22. 3 4. 4 4.8 1. 4

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The foregoing table shows that the proportion of foreign-born males who were working for wages and who were employed as farmers before coming to the United States is slightly below and the proportion employed as general laborers very much below the proportion employed in all other occupations. As regards those working without wages less than 1 per cent were employed in all occupations other than as farm laborers, while of those working for profit 13.1 per cent of the 21,696 foreign-born males concerning whom information was obtained were farmers, as against 3 per cent who were engaged in all

3 other occupations. That the tendencies of the various races may be more readily noted, it is considered best to classify them into two groups. In the first will be found those races of older and in the second those of more recent immigration. If an average be made for each occupation in each of these groups it will be noted that the proportion of both who were employed as farm laborers and those who were employed as general laborers are very nearly the same, while the older immigrants show a very much larger proportion than the recent immigrants who were employed in all other occupations for wages before coming to the United States. A comparison of the averages of the two groups who were employed as farm laborers and in all other occupations without wages shows that the proportion of each group who were employed in all other occupations is very nearly the same, but that the proportion of the older immigrants who were employed as farm laborers is much smaller than the proportion of the more recent immigrants. As regards those who worked for profit, the more recent immigrants again show a larger proportion than the older immigrants engaged in farming, although the difference is slightly less marked in this instance than among those who were employed without wages, while only a very small difference is noted in the proportions of the older and more recent immigrants who were employed in all other occupations for profit. It is a significant fact, gleaned from the averages for these two groups, that almost twothirds of the more recent immigrants gained a livelihood from the farms, while about the same proportion of the older immigrants were in occupations other than farming or as farm laborers before coming to the United States.

The conclusion to be drawn from this comparison is that only a very small proportion of the more recent immigrants, as compared with the proportion of the older immigrants, had any industrial training before coming to the United States. Consequently, very few of the large numbers of immigrants that are coming to this country at present have had any previous knowledge of or experience in the particular industries or occupations in which they are now employed. There are, however, several notable exceptions to this, as will be noted from a comparison of the proportions of the various races who were employed for wages in occupations other than farming or as farm laborers. The principal exceptions are the Cubans and Spaniards, who, among those who worked for wages, show 90.2 and 69.6 per cent, respectively. Both the Cubans and Spaniards, who are almost exclusively employed in the manufacturing of cigars and tobacco in this country, are undoubtedly following the same occupation that was followed in

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