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Americans. The following statement shows the racial composition in 1909, by number of families and number of individuals:
TABLE 10.—Estimated population of Whiting, Ind., 1909, by race.
Since the entrance of the first Austro-Hungarian races in about 1890 there has been an annual immigration, not alone of the Poles, Slovaks, Croatians, and Magyars, but of other races, including Swedes, English, Welsh, North Italians, Bohemians, Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and Hebrews. The Slovak immigration during this period has been the heaviest, and at present the number of Slovaks in Whiting, next to the Americans, is greater than that of any other one race. It is stated by old residents of the city that many of the immigrants who entered the community shortly after the opening of the refinery are still living in the locality. Industrially, Whiting is at the present time essentially an oil-refining community. The petroleum refinery is the only industrial establishment located in the city, and among the employees will be found represented nearly all races living in the community.
The territory upon which Bayonne now stands was settled by the Holland Dutch during the period of from 1646 to 1664. The present city of Bayonne was first incorporated in 1869, at which time the population was composed of the descendants of the early settlers, together with quite a number of Irish who came in about four years previous. The Germans settled in the locality shortly after the Irish, and for some time the representatives of these races largely predominated as laborers. About the same time the English, Scotch, and Welsh came to Bayonne, although a few English were among the early settlers. The combined numbers of these races, however, have never constituted a large proportion of the population. A small number of Swedes came to the locality prior to 1880, but the period of their greatest influx was from 1880 to 1882. From 1880 to 1885 large numbers of Slovaks, Ruthenians, and Poles, in the order named, and in 1887 many Magyars, settled in Bayonne. These, the first of the more recent immigrants to come to this locality, were almost exclusively employed in an oil refinery. The Russian Jews and Italians settled in considerable numbers from 1896 to 1900, although
years. A number of other races are also represented, but those previously mentioned are considered to have been the most important factor in building up the larger industries of the locailty.
SILK GOODS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.
The racial movements to the silk goods manufacturing and the silk goods dyeing industry may be best illustrated by the history of immigration to Paterson, N. J., the principal silk goods manufacturing center in the United States.
The silk industry was established in Paterson by English immigrants in 1854, but not until 1870 did they come to this locality in large numbers. A few Scotch and Irish immigrants were included in this early movement. English immigration continued more or less steadily up to 1890, when the Italians first entered the industry. During the late seventies experienced French operatives were persuaded to leave their native land and come to the silk mills of Paterson. A few left the mills in Paterson and returned to France in 1888 and 1890, and practically all of them returned to their native country in the early nineties because of the closing of a number of the mills on account of the industrial depression that occureed during that period. As previously stated, the Italians obtained their first employment in the silk mills during that period from 1888 to 1890, when several strikes occurred among the dye workers, although quite a number of them had settled in Paterson and had been employed in other occupations five or six years previously. The large increase, however, in the percentage of Italian workmen dates from 1896-97. Although the Poles first entered the community in 1898, several years prior to the Russian Hebrews, they were not employed in the silk mills until later. Only a very small number of the Armenians who came to Paterson in 1901 and who were employed in the silk mills remain, preferring, it seems, to obtain employment in localities with a larger population of their own race. Only very small numbers of German and Swiss immigrants have ever been employed in the silk mills of Paterson, and these came in the days of the early expansion of the industry.
LEATHER TANNING, CURRYING, AND FINISHING INDUSTRY.
The racial movements to and substitutions in the leather manufacturing industry are represented by the history of immigration to the principal divisions of the industry: (1) To the leather tanning and finishing establishments of Wilmington, Del.; (2) to the glazed-kid branch of the industry in Philadelphia, Pa.; and (3) to the tanneries of western Pennsylvania and Milwaukee, Wis.
At the time the leather tanning and finishing industry in Wilmington, Del., was established forty or more years ago, the immigrants chiefly employed were the Germans, Scandinavians, and Irish. The employment of these immigrants decreased after the introduction of machinery in the industry about fifteen years ago, and has now practically ceased. Among the more recent immigrants only the Poles and Italians appear to have become a factor in the operation of
ployment in the leather factories about twenty years ago, the majority of employees of these races were employed a few years later, when there was an increased demand for unskilled labor."
Until twelve or fifteen years ago the employees in the glazed-kid industry in Philadelphia, Pa., were practically all Americans, Irish, and Germans. As a result of a new process adopted at about that time less skilled labor war required, and it was then that the more recent immigrants to the United States were employed. The first of the more recent immigrants to be employed were the Poles, but they were so quickly followed by the Slovaks, Magyars, South Italians, Armenians, and Greeks that there was practically no difference in the time of employment. The Irish and native Americans still constitute about 50 per cent of all employees, while among the more recent immigrants the Poles predominate.
In the early days of the tanning industry in western Pennsylvania the Irish, Germans, and Swedes were the principal employees. Occasionally a few Danes and Swiss were employed, but these peoples, like the Irish and Germans, were soon largely supplanted by the Swedes, who in turn are being supplanted by the more recent immigrants to the United States, such as the Slovaks, Poles, and Italians. The Slovaks obtained their first employment in this section of the State in 1885, and were followed by the Poles in 1890, while the Italians, who have become an important factor in the operation of some of the tanneries, were not employed in any appreciable number until 1901. A few Belgians, French, and Macedonians have been employed since 1902, but not in sufficient numbers in any one tannery to have become a factor in the operation of same.
The Germans, Irish, Americans, a few English and Scotch were the first employees in the tanning industry in Milwaukee, Wis., with the Germans largely predominating. In all, about 18 different races are represented in this industry at the present time. The foreign-born races now a factor in the operation of the tanneries in this locality are the Germans, Poles, Greeks, Slovaks, Croatians, Lithuanians, Magyars and Russians. The Poles were the first of the more recent immigrants to secure employment in this industry. Their employment to any extent first occurred in 1870. In 1877-78 they were strongly represented and have continued so until now, although there has been quite a falling off at various times. The Russian Poles entered the industry in 1885, Italians in 1890, Croatians, Magyars, and Slovaks in 1892, and Lithuanians and Greeks in large numbers in 1903, although a few of the latter were employed in 1898-99. Representatives of the Swiss, Swedish, Danish, Bohemian, Finnish, Dutch, and Bulgarian races have been employed from time to time, but in such small numbers that their employment has attracted little or no attention.
PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.
The character of recent and past immigration to mines and manufacturing establishments of the United States is exhibited in the following series of tabulations. The table which immediately follows shows, by sex and race, the period of residence in the United States of
TABLE 11.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes in each sex group only races with 80 or more males or females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
5.8 9.3 19.3 20.3 9.7 21.4 6.5 6.6