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factory was placed in operation the population of the community was composed chiefly of Belgians, who predominated, Germans, English, and Americans. Since then the racial composition of the community has followed closely that of the plant. Hand methods have been employed in the plant from the beginning, and, with the exception of the introduction of electric cranes for moving glass, no machinery is used. During the early days of the plant about 50 per cent of its employees were skilled Belgians, 25 per cent skilled Germans from Westphalia and Rhenish Prussia, where the Belgian glass-making methods are used, and 25 per cent English and American, who constituted the unskilled labor in the casting rooms. At present the proportions of races employed are: Belgians, 5 per cent; Germans, 5 per cent; Italians, 20 per cent; Americans, 10 per cent; Slovaks, 30 per cent; Poles, 10 per cent; all other races, 10 per cent.
, These figures show an almost total displacement of the Belgians and Germans and a displacement of about one-half of the native workmen by the Slovaks, Poles, and Italians. The causes assigned for this change in the races by the officials of the plant may be grouped as follows:
(a) The gradual decrease in the number of skilled Belgians and Germans by reason of death, retirement, return to Belgium and Germany, and employment in other glass plants located farther west.
(6) The entering into the steel works and other industries of native and English employees and of the second generation of Belgians and Germans.
(c) The influx of Slovak, Polish, and Italian workmen, and their influence in the unskilled labor market of the Pittsburg district since 1898.
The first of the recent immigrants were employed in 1898. Slovaks were employed in 1898 and the Poles in 1900, but not until about 1907 were the Italians employed in any considerable numbers. The Slovaks and Poles took the place of the unskilled natives and others as they were either advanced into the skilled occupations in the glass factory or entered new fields of work. As the Belgians and Germans gradually left, numbers of Slovaks and Poles were advanced into the skilled occupation. At the present time the unskilled labor is done by the Italians and Macedonians. A large number of the first layers,
A first grinders, and first polishers—among the most skilled operatives in the plant-are Slovaks and Poles. The Slovaks, however, are the predominating race in the plant at the present time.
The Poles and Slovaks are not regarded as the equals of the average Belgian and German glass workers, or that of the natives, but the officials of the factory claim that they are the best workers who can be secured in face of the competition which exists between the larger industries for native labor and of the cessation of immigration of skilled glass workers from Belgium and Germany. Due to this situation, the vacancies in the plant have been filled as they occurred with Slovaks and Poles, who, however, demanded much attention to fit them for the work.
The chief foreign population of Community D is composed of Italians, about 15 per cent of whom are North Italians, with a total population of between 1,200 and 1,500. There are about 100 Poles, 25 Slovaks, a few Russian Hebrews, and a small number of first-generation Belgians and Germans, together with a few of the second generation of the latter.
The Belgians, with a few English, were the first immigrants to enter the community. They were induced to come by the establishment of a window-glass factory in 1888. About the same time a number of German miners were employed in the coal mines in the locality. The Belgians composed 75 per cent of the employees of the window-glass plant when it was placed in operation and constituted, with the exception of a few English, all of the skilled workers. The unskilled workers at that time were all native Americans. Belgians continued as skilled workers and in about the same proportion to the total number of employees in the plant until the strike of 1903 and the introduction of machinery in 1904.
Following the introduction of machinery in 1904 all of the Belgians, except those who owned property, left to seek employment in other communities where the work was done by hand. Americans were placed on the machines, the introduction of which meant
large increase in the number of unskilled and semiskilled workmen. The lower occupations were filled by Italians and Poles and Slovaks. At the present time 70 per cent of the window-glass workers are recent immigrants of this class, chiefly Italians.
The Italians have to some extent entered the semiskilled occupations, earning from $20 to $25 per week. A few Belgian flatteners and cutters are still employed, since this work is still done by hand, but their number is gradually diminishing because of the cessation of immigration of Belgian glass workers and the removal by death of those now employed. Americans are gradually taking their places.
On the other hand, the plant of a bottle manufacturing company located in the community has employed a large proportion of Italians since it was started in 1898. Of the total employees in this establishment, 300 in all, about 175 have always been Italians, of whom 50 are from northern Italy. In addition to the Italians there are about 10 Poles, 6 Belgians, and one or two Slovaks. All of this class of labor receive from 15 to 20 cents per hour for men and from 11 to 15 cents per hour for boys, the work being largely unskilled and carried on in ten-hour periods a day. Americans do all the skilled work in the bottle works, receiving from $6 to $9 per day on piecework. They constitute about one-third of the total number of employees. There has been practically no change in the racial composition of this plant since it was started, with the exception of the small number of Poles who have been employed within the past five years.
These two glass plants employ practically all of the immigrant labor in the community, and the changes which have been made by them
Community E, although located in a bituminous coal mining district, supports a number of important glass factories, which constitute its chief industry. In 1908 the estimatod population was 9,000, composed of the following races: Americans.
3,000 Belgians (including French).
1, 200 Croatians.
1, 700 All other races.
The first glass plant was erected in the community in which was followed by several other establishments in the course of a few years. To provide the necessary skilled labor to operate the new plants, large numbers of Belgian, English, German, and French glass workers, who had learned their trades in Europe, were imported by the larger companies. The unskilled occupations were filled by native Americans and a few Germans. As most of the work demanded trained operatives, under the hand methods employed at that time, the number of unskilled employees was comparatively small. In the course of a year or two the Americans were slowly advanced into the skilled occupations as they mastered their trades.
Just at this period, however, the methods of manufacture were revolutionized in the glass industry by the introduction of machinery. Instead of the demand for skilled hand workers a demand was created for cheaper laborers possessed of sufficient intelligence to operate the machines. The labor organizations among the glass workers in Community E immediately recognized this new element and directed all of their powers to prevent the installation of machinery in the plants. Their efforts were defeated in 1898, when one of the largest plate-glass works abolished the old hand methods. By 1904 each plant in the community was fully equipped with labor-saving machinery.
With the defeat of the unions and the adoption of machine methods, employment of the recent races of immigration began. Slovaks, Russians, Poles, and Italians were employed in larger numbers by the plate-glass plants and the chimney works. The industry in the community is practically conducted as an “open shop” at present, but the labor organizations are making every effort possible to unionize the several plants, in the hope of being able to put an end to the employment of cheap immigrant labor, which has recently entered the locality.
The following statement shows period of immigration of each immigrant race employed in the glass establishments of Community E and the occupations each has entered:
Table 9.-Period of immigration of foreign races employed in Community E glass
establishments, and occupations entered.
Community F has been developed industrially since the year 1875. It is located in the eastern part of Missouri. In that year an important plate-glass company entered the community and erected a glass factory which now gives employment to about 600 persons. Native Americans, English, Slovaks, Roumanians, and Poles compose the labor forces of the plant, as well as the population of the town, which was estimated at 1,600 individuals in 1909. This glass factory is the only industrial establishment in the town, and the history of its development is the industrial and racial history of the community.
The factory was established with a working force of about 100 skilled English glass workers and an equal number of native Americans employed in the unskilled occupations. At the time the plant
. was established glass making was a new enterprise in the United States, while in England, France, and Belgium it was numbered among the most important industries. It was impossible, therefore, to secure skilled native glass workers, and in turning to the European labor markets for the supply of skilled workmen required to operate the factory the officials of the new company gave the preference to the English glass workers in that they spoke a common language. The English glass workers who were imported by the factory at this time formed the first immigrant colony in the town.
From the year of establishment until 1906 no appreciable increase was made in the number of employees in the factory, although machines and modern methods were slowly introduced. In the latter part of the year 1906 the plant was enlarged, and a demand created for additional labor which resulted in the importation of a group of 40 Roumanians, which people had been successfully employed in the glass factories in the Eastern States. The institution of machinery had made necessary the employment of larger numbers of unskilled workmen, and as the experiment with the Roumanians was successful, The colonies which these races formed in the town have been enlarged from time to time by immigrants seeking employment. About 50 per cent of the total population of the town at the present time is composed of recent immigrants, while the racial composition of the glass factory is about 50 per cent native American, 25 per cent English, 12 per cent Slovak, 8 per cent Roumanian, and 5 per cent Polish. The present immigration is chiefly made up of Slovaks, Roumanians, and Poles.
A conception of the part which members of races of recent and past immigration have had in the development of the oil-refining industry and the extent to which they are employed at the present time may be obtained, however, from a study of the racial movements to and racial composition of communities which have had their establishment and growth in connection with oil refining. For this reason the history of immigration to two representative oil-refining communities is set forth below:(1) To Whiting, Ind., which is a city of the Middle West, the labor and capital of which is almost exclusively engaged in oil refining, and (2) to Bayonne, N. J., which is a city of the same description in the East, the industries of which, however, are somewhat more diversified than those of Whiting.
The city of Whiting is located on the shores of Lake Michigan, in the extreme northwestern corner of the State of Indiana, about 17 miles southeast of the city of Chicago, Ill. It was first settled about the year 1850 by a few native American and German families, who formed a small village. These early settlers lived on the produce of the sandy ranges of the district and by fishing and hunting. From year to year the population of this settlement was increased by German immigrants seeking homes, until in 1890 the number of persons in the village was about 200.
During the later part of the year 1889 a petroleum-refining company entered the community and began the erection of an extensive refinery. In order to build the plant it was found necessary to import large numbers of workmen from other parts of the United States, the majority of whom were native Americans and Irish transferred from other establishments of the company, chiefly from a refinery in Cleveland, Ohio. When the plant was opened, in 1890, practically the same laborers who had been employed to erect it were placed in the several departments to carry on the operations. Following closely upon this event a general immigration to the community began, composed chiefly of Poles, Slovaks, Croatians, and Magyars, who came seeking employment. From year to year, after this period, the community increased in population until the year 1900, when the census of the United States placed the population at 3,983. In 1895 the community was incorporated under a town charter, and on May 4, 1903, was granted a city charter. The estimated population in 1909 was 7,000 individuals, 65 per cent, or 4,550, being composed of immigrant aliens, and 35 per cent made up of native