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time, for, unlike the Irish, the English are confined within no parochial bounds. They probably number about 9,000 or 10,000. The Scotch population is similarly mingled with other elements. It probably numbers between 2,000 and 2,500.

French Canadian.-In 1865 the number of persons in the community born in "British America" was 563. In 1875 there were 1,924 born in the "Dominion of Canada." French Canadian immigration appears to have progressed more slowly than to the more distinctively cotton towns of New England. It was 1871 when the subject of organizing a church among them was first agitated. In 1875 a church building was secured, and in 1878 there were about 1,300 communicants. At the present time the French Canadian population numbers about 12,000.During the industrial depression of 1907 possibly 2,000 returned to Canada or left the community for other places in the United States. Most of the people who went to Canada were waiting for better industrial conditions before returning to the United States, and in the meantime worked on farms. In times of industrial activity the seasonal immigration to Canada is not very large. It is noticeable in the community as elsewhere that after fifteen or twenty years' residence in this country the birth rate of French Canadians is much less than at the time of their arrival. The men realize the financial burden imposed by a large family, and the women learn to prize a measure of ease and freedom.

German. The first German church was organized in May, 1872, and the next year it was incorporated as the "German Church and School Society." As early as 1853, however, 5 German families had settled in Lawrence and the total German population at that time was not far from 40. In 1908 local newspapers estimated the German population at 12,000 and the German-speaking population, including certain Jews, Poles, and Russians, at 15,000. It is also maintained that, next to Boston, Lawrence was the largest German center in New England. The Germans of the community came principally from the textile districts of Saxony, Bavaria, and Silesia, and a large number of the weavers in the worsted mills are of the German race. Polish.-Polish immigrants have been numbered among the population of the city only during the past fifteen or twenty years. The census of 1895 showed but 15 born in Poland. In 1903 there are said to have been 600 Poles in the city. The Polish Roman Catholic Church. was established that year. At the present time there are about 2,100 Poles in the city. Of these, about two-thirds are from Galicia in Austro-Hungary, nearly one-third from Russia, and about 2 per cent are from Posen, Germany.

Portuguese. A small number of Portuguese immigrants were found among the foreign population of the city soon after the close of the civil war. It is only within the past ten years that their numbers have increased to any considerable extent. A church was organized in 1906. At present the Portuguese population is about 685.

Hebrew. Hebrew immigration to Lawrence has taken place mainly within the last twenty years. One of the oldest Hebrew residents in the city stated that in 1890 there were about 50 Hebrew families in the city, as compared with about 400 at the present time. Estimating 6 individuals to a family, this would give a Hebrew population

or later pass out into some business venture of their own. Rather more than usual of their race are found employed as mill operatives, due perhaps to the fact that a part of the Hebrew population came from cities in Russia, such as Warsaw, which are seats of the textile industry.

Italian. The Italian population of Lawrence was very small previous to 1895. Since that time the increase has been rapid, due in part to artificial stimulation by the management of one or two of the larger worsted mills. The Italian priest stated that when he came to the city in 1902 there was an Italian population of 2,000, that by 1905 it had increased to about 5,000, and that in 1906 his own census showed a total of 9,700. At present the Italian population is about 15,000, so this priest claims, but from inquiry in other quarters it is thought that these figures must be rather too high, and that probably 8,000 would be a safer estimate for the present population. The growth, however, during the past few years has been rapid. All but a few families are South Italians. From 1,100 to 1,500 went back to Italy during the depression of 1907. At the present time from 50 to 75 Italians are coming into the city each month.

Syrian. The census of 1895 was the first which showed any appreciable number of immigrants from the Turkish Empire. The majority of the 213 reported that year were no doubt Syrians. The greater part of the colony has come within the past ten years. The total Syrian population at the present time is between 2,500 and 3,000. There are a large number of families, and about a fourth of the population consists of children under 16 years of age. The reports and savings of the first Syrian immigrants formed the incentive needed to bring their fellow-countrymen. The greater part of the Syrian population is employed in the textile mills, but a considerable number of stores-about 25-have been established by Syrians. These are usually small grocery, fruit, or general stores. There are four Syrian farmers in the vicinity, one Syrian physician, and one dentist practicing in the city. The Syrian population has permanent employment, and only a score or so of the race left the city during the panic year of 1907. There is a tendency on the part of Syrians to remain permanently in this country; but, if conditions change decisively for the better in Turkey, it is probable that the current will flow in the other direction, for the soil there is more fertile. while living is cheaper. The majority of the Syrians in Lawrence. are from the Mount Lebanon district. About 60 per cent of the Syrians are able to speak English, some of them having received training in American schools in their own land. In religion the Syrians of the city are divided roughly as follows:

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Armenian. The Armenian population of the community numbers about 600, of whom about one-sixth are Protestants and the rest

Since constitutional government has been established in Turkey, egress from the Empire has been possible, and more Armenians have come to this country than formerly. This tendency is likely to continue, so that in time the Armenian population may equal the Syrian. Armenian immigration to Community A dates from about fifteen

years ago.

Lithuanian.-The first Lithuanian came to Lawrence in 1885 and the second in 1888. A Lithuanian society was organized in 1894 with 12 members. In 1898 the Lithuanian population numbered 300. A Lithuanian church was established in 1905. The population has about doubled within the past three years, and at the present time numbers about 3,000 persons. The Lithuanians have been drawn to the community by the opportunity for employment in the mills.

Franco-Belgian.-These people are for the most part Frenchspeaking textile workers from Belgium and the adjacent districts of France who have been coming to a number of American wool and worsted towns where they find employment as skilled operatives. The larger part are weavers. Carpenters and other mechanics are also found among them. The first immigrants of this race to Community A came about fifteen years ago, but the majority have arrived since 1905. The term "race" as applied to these people may be open to question, as a considerable mixture of bloods has occurred in that polyglot corner of Europe. Between 1,000 and 1,200 of these people have already made their homes in Lawrence and an annual immigration is expected. There is no church among them, and there is not likely to be one, since, like many Belgian workingmen, their inclinations are not in that direction. Unlike the French Canadians, but true to the conditions of their own land, they are quick to espouse the cause of trade unionism in their new home. The recently organized weavers' union meets in the hall of the Franco-Belgian Club.


Bringing together the scattered estimates set forth in the preceding pages, the racial composition of the city is about as follows:

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The manufacture of clothing is based upon a different form of industrial organization and has an operating force of a different character from that of the textiles or bituminous coal mining. A brief review of the racial substitutions which have occurred in the industry will therefore be of value, and a history of the racial changes which have occurred in connection with the industry in the large clothing manufacturing centers of Chicago, New York, and Baltimore may be considered as representative of racial displacements in the industry as a whole.

From the beginning until as late as 1890 Germans were almost exclusively employed in shops and by establishments engaged in the manufacturing of clothing in Baltimore, Md. During the past twenty years, however, a very large number of Russian Hebrews have come to this locality, most of whom have obtained employment in this industry. Although many of this race were tailors by trade, they entered the less skilled occupations in the shops and factories of Baltimore. A very short time afterwards, or in 1895, the Lithuanians entered the industry, and they were followed, in 1900, by the Bohemians, Poles, Italians, and representatives of a few of the other races from Austria-Hungary. Since 1905, the Russian Hebrew, Lithuanian, and Italian have been the principal races from which the manufacturers have obtained their necessary supply of labor. The early history of clothing manufacturing establishments in Chicago differs from that of the establishments in Baltimore in that not only the Germans but the German Jews, Bohemians, and a few Americans and Poles were the first employees. About fifteen years ago the Scandinavians entered the industry and within a short time became very proficient. Following the Scandinavians came the Russian Jews, who were employed prior to either the Italians or Lithuanians. In recent years, however, the number of Russian Jews entering the industry has increased rapidly, and it is from this source that clothing manufacturing establishments have secured the greater proportion of employees. Unlike the tailoring shops of Baltimore and Chicago, those in New York depended originally upon the Irish, who predominated from 1850 to 1888. The introduction of machines has made it possible to employ a less intelligent and less skilled force than when all work was done by hand. From 1865 to 1888 a few Swedes, and from 1880 to 1890 the Germans entered the industry. Russian and Polish Hebrews first obtained employment in large numbers from 1890 to 1895, while the Italians, many of whom were employed as early as 1880, entered the industry in largely increased numbers in 1895, and are now supplanting the Russian Hebrews.


The boot and shoe manufacturing industry, like that of the textiles, represents the highest development of the factory system with the use of the most elaborate machine methods and the most minute division of labor. As a result, it has been able to use a large proportion of unskilled labor in the operating forces of the boot and shoe

have been employed. A history of immigration to a number of representative establishments in New England and the Middle West will illustrate the racial movements to and the racial displacements in the industry.


As illustrative of the racial changes which have occurred in the operating forces in the New England States, the history of the employment of the several races of operatives in a number of representative establishments is set forth below. To prevent identification, each establishment is designated by a numeral.

Establishment No. 1.-Establishment No. 1, in Massachusetts, in which shoe findings are manufactured, was established about ten years ago. With the exception of the Greek, all races now represented, together with the Irish, were employed when the plant first began operations. The Greeks have been employed only within the last five years, while all of the Irish and very nearly all of the native Americans who were formerly employed have left the plant to accept work, in most instances, in the more skilled occupations of the same industry. The native Americans and Irish were not forced out of but voluntarily left this plant as they became older and more capable, and their places were gradually filled by the more recent immigrants. At the present time the racial complexion of the employees of this plant is as follows: Greek 33, Hebrew 30, Italian 6, native American 4, and Polish 1. Thus it will be seen that the Greeks and Hebrews constitute over 85 per cent of the total number employed.

Establishment No. 2.-Establishment No. 2, in Massachusetts, in which men's shoes are manufactured, has been in operation for forty years. When operations were first begun native American whites and Irish were employed exclusively. About thirty years ago the French Canadians secured their first employment. A little later on the Hebrews entered this plant, and they in turn were closely followed by the Italians. It has only been within the last fifteen years that the Lithuanians and Poles have secured employment, while the Greeks were first employed in this plant upon their arrival in the community five years ago. There has been no sudden change in the racial complexion of the employees in plant No. 2, for the more recent immigrants have gradually worked in as the business expanded. Therefore no displacement of the native Americans or older immigrant employees can be said to have taken place. As occasion demanded and the more recent immigrants sought employment, they were employed without any discrimination whatever for or against any particular race. Of the few older employees who have gone out of this plant, some, it is said, have gone into the Middle West and have been employed in the same industry in the capacity of foremen and superintendents. Although by far the largest number of employees of this plant are classed by those in authority as native American whites, it is more than likely that the largest proportion of those so designated are the second generation of the older immigrants from northern Europe. Of the non-English speaking races employed at present the French Canadian largely outnumber any other. Following the French Canadian is the Hebrew, the

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