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Number of employees of each general nativity for whom detailed information was secured, by sex.

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Upon referring to the totals in the foregoing table it is seen that more than one-half, or 57.9 per cent, of all the employees for whom detailed information was received were of foreign birth, while only 20.1 per cent were native-born white persons of native father, and 17 per cent persons of native birth but of foreign father, the remaining 5 per cent being native-born negroes. The wage-earners of the second generation, or of native birth, and of foreign father, are composed principally of persons whose fathers were born in Canada, England, Germany, and Ireland, less than 1 per cent being of fathers whose birthplaces were in Austria-Hungary, Denmark, Italy, Norway, Russia, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, and Wales. Of the wage-earners of foreign birth and of old immigration, the Germans form the largest proportion, followed by the French Canadians, English, Irish, Scotch, Swedish, and Welsh, in the order named. Of the races of recent immigration to the United States, the largest proportion of wageearners is furnished by the Poles, the representation of this race being 9.6 per cent of the total number for whom information was received. The next race most extensively employed is the Slovak, followed closely by the South Italian, which race in turn is closely followed by the North Italian. The Lithuanian, Magyar, and Croatian races appear in the next largest proportions. The Greeks, Hebrews, and Slovenians, together with 13 other races from southern and eastern Europe, are engaged in manufacturing and mining in considerable numbers, but in less proportions than the races already mentioned.

a For a more detailed showing of the racial classification of industrial workers, see Abstracts of Reports of the Immigration Commission, Volume 1, pp. 320-348. (S. Doc. 747, 6lst Cong., 3d sess.)

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration to representative industries—Period of residence in the United

States of foreign-born employees and members of their households—[Text Tables 6 to 12 and General Tables 5 and 6).

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION TO REPRESENTATIVE INDUSTRIES.

The racial displacements which have been caused as a result of the conditions outlined above have manifested themselves in three ways. In the first place, a larger proportion of native Americans and older immigrant employees from Great Britain and northern Europe have left certain industries, such as bituminous and anthracite coal mining and iron and steel manufacturing. In the second place, a part of the earlier employees, as already pointed out, who remained in the industries in which they were employed before the advent of the southern and eastern European have been able, because of the demand growing out of the general industrial expansion, to attain to the more skilled and responsible technical and executive positions which required employees of training and experience. In the larger number of cases, where the older employees remained in a certain industry after the pressure of the competition of the recent immigrant had begun to be felt, they relinquished their former occupations and segregated themselves in certain occupations. This tendency is best illustrated by the distribution of employees according to race in the bituminous coal mines. In this industry all the so-called “company" occupations, which are paid on the basis of a daily, weekly, or monthly rate, are occupied by native Americans or older immigrants and their children, while the southern and eastern Europeans are confined to pick mining and to the unskilled and common labor. The same situation exists in iron and steel and glass manufacturing, the textile manufacturing industries, and in all divisions of manufacturing enterprise. It is largely due to the stigma which has become attached to the fact of working in the same occupations as the southern and eastern Europeans that in some cases, as in the bituminous coalmining industry, has led to the segregation of the older class of employees in occupations which, from the standpoint of compensation, are less desirable than those occupied by recent immigrants. In most industries the native Americans and older immigrant workmen who have remained in the same occupations as those in which the recent immigrants are predominant are made up of the thriftless, unprogressive elements of the original operating forces. The third striking feature resulting from the competition of southern and eastern Europeans is seen in the fact that in the case of most industries, such as iron and steel, textile, and glass manufacturing and the different

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forms of mining, the children of native Americans and older immigrants from Great Britain and northern Europe are not entering the industries in which their fathers have been employed. All kinds of manufacturers claim that they are unable to secure a sufficient number of native-born employees to insure the development of the necessary number of workmen to fill the positions of skill and responsibility in their establishments. This condition of affairs is attributable to three factors: (1) General or technical education has enabled a considerable number of the children of the industrial workers of the passing generation to command business, professional, or technical occupations more desirable than those of their fathers; (2) the conditions of work which the employment of recent immigrants have largely made possible has rendered certain industrial occupations unattractive to the prospective wage-earner of native birth; and (3) occupations other than those in which southern and eastern Europeans are engaged are sought for the reason that popular opinion attaches to them a more satisfactory social status and a higher degree of respectability.

It is obviously extremely difficult to form generalizations as to the effect of the competition of recent immigrant industrial workers upon native Americans and employees of the immigration of former years without referring to certain industries and taking into account certain exceptions. The general displacements and their causes, it is be lieved, as applicable to manufacturing and mining as a whole, are succinctly set forth above. Specific reference as to the conditions in any of the principal industries may be had by referring to the detailed reports. In the present connection, for the purpose of illustrating the points already made, a brief account is submitted of the racial movements to and racial displacements in several representative industries. No other large industry in the United States, with the possible exception of iron and steel and textile manufacturing, has absorbed such a number of recent immigrants or such a diversity of races as bituminous coal mining, and the racial movements to, and displacements in, the operating forces of the bituminous coal mines may be set forth as representative of the situation which has developed to a more or less marked degree in the other leading industries of the country.

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HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION TO THE BITUMINOUS COAL-MINING FIELDS.

Remarkable development has been in progress in the bituminous coal-producing areas of Pennsylvania during the past forty years. A conception of the expansion in bituminous mining operations in this State during the period mentioned may be gathered from the fact that the output in short tons was 150,143,177 in 1907 as compared with 7,798,518 short tons in 1870 and by the additional fact that the total number of bituminous mine workers in 1907 was 163,295 as contrasted with only 16,851 in 1870. During the decade 1880-1890 the operating forces of the Pennsylvania bituminous mines consisted of native Americans and members of the English, Irish, Scotch, Welsh, and German races who had, as a rule, been practical miners before immigration to this country, and who, after their arrival in the

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