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PART III.—STATISTICAL SUMMARY, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE.

CHAPTER I.

EXTENT OF THE INFORMATION SECURED.

Households studied-Members of households for whom detailed information was

secured-Employees for whom detailed information was secured—[Text Tables 1 to 5 and General Tables 1 to 4.]

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

A total of 17,141 households the heads of which were miners or wage-earners in manufacturing establishments were studied in detail in the course of the general investigation of immigrants in industries in the territory between the Rocky Mountains and the Atlantic seaboard. These households were selected upon the following basis: (1) A certain maximum number were allotted to each industry studied; (2) the number of the households of each race studied in connection with each industry was apportioned according to the relative numerical importance of the several races in the operating force; (3) the total number of households were then divided (a) according to the geographical distribution of the industry in order to ascertain differences in working and living conditions in various sections of the country, (b) a limited number of households the heads of which were native Americans or older immigrants without reference to the number of such employees in the industry were secured for the purpose of comparison with the households the heads of which were wageearners of recent immigration, and (c) the households the heads of which were of foreign birth and of recent immigration were apportioned according to the period of residence of the heads in the United States. The table which follows shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the total number of households studied:

TABLE 1.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Table 1.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of householdCont'd.

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Upon referring to the table preceding, it is seen that of the total number of households studied (1,139, or 6.6 per cent, were those of heads who were native-born white persons of native fathers; 727, or 4.2 per cent, were of heads of native birth but of foreign father; and 148, or 0.9 per cent, were of heads who were native-born negroes. These classes of households, together with those the heads of which were foreign-born English, German, Irish, Welsh, and Scotch industrial workers, were selected to afford a comparison, as stated above, with wage-earners of southern and eastern Europe engaged in the same industries and occupations. The remaining households, having been selected on the basis of the numerical importance of the several races in the different industries studied, indicate the relative extent to which members of the several races were employed in the mines and manufacturing establishments of the United States. In this respect the Poles outrank all other races of recent immigration, 12.3 per cent of the total number of households studied being represented by this race. The South Italians and Slovaks are next in order.

Of the total number of households, 8.9 per cent are of the former and 7.7 per cent of the latter race. As a matter of fact, the Poles and South Italians are employed in practically, all branches of mining and manufacturing enterprise

. Italians, but in those industries in which the Slovaks are principally employed, such as bituminous and anthracite coal mining and the iron and steel plants, they appear in larger numbers than the other

After the Slovaks, the Magyars, Lithuanians, Hebrews, North Italians, Croatians, Ruthenians, and French Canadians form the largest proportions of the body of wage-earners who are heads of households. The heads of households of other races occur in comparatively small numbers in different industries or, as in the case of the Bravă textile operatives in New England, the Cuban cigarmakers in Tampa and New Orleans, or the Mexican miners in the Southwest, are representative of only one industry or of a certain geographical area in which the industry is located.

two races.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS

SECURED.

There was a total of 96,543 persons in the households investigated, and of this number detailed information was secured for 87,082. The table next presented sets forth, by general nativity and race of head of household, the persons in the households studied and the persons for whom detailed information was obtained. TABLE 2.Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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583 2,559

112

784 2,934 2,790 200

81 811 2,072

818

659

377

Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro.
Native-born of foreiga father, by race of
father:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.
Dutch.
English.
German
Irish..

Polish.
Foreign-born:

Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava....
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban..
Danish.
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
Flemish
French.
German
Greek.
Hebrew
Irish..
Italian, North
Italian, South
Japanese.
Lithuanian.
Macedonian
Magyar.
Mexican.
Norwegian
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian.
Russian.
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian.
Spanish
Swedish
Syrian.
Turkish.
Welsh..

Grand total..
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born.

501

30 139 506 617 43 20 144 461 142

85 146 948 226 749 731

653 1,530

3 791

12 911 42

569

2,085

698
396

569
4,919
1, 386
3,950
3,984
3, 593
8, 637

160 4,651

85 5, 867

196

153
12, 755
1,550

960
445

.6 2. 7 .1 .9 3.1 4. 9 .2 .1 .8 2. 2 .7 .4 .6 5. 1 1. 4 4.1 4.1 3. 7 8.9

.2 4.8

.1 6.1 .2

.2 13. 2 1. 6 1.0

.5 3.7 .8 .7 8.0 1.0

.2 2.5 .8 .8 5

7 2.9 .1

9 3.4 3. 2 .2 .1 .9 2. 4 .8 .4 .7 5. 3 1.5 4.5 4. 5 3. 5 9.3

.1 4. 9

.1 5. 2 .2

4,631 1,346 3,928 3,952 3,051 8,077

77 4,267

76 4, 486

196

153 11,517 1,398

288

351 3,360

721

335 6, 803

845

188 2,311

768 446 493

13. 2 1. 6 .3

4 3. 9 .8

2,
232
77
75
531
135

69
1,319
174

39 485 165 50 94

3, 539

729

664 7, 737 1,013

188 2,377

792 792 494

7.8 1.0

.2 2. 7 .9 .5 .6

on NOOOO

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The following table shows the distribution of the 87,082 persons in the households studied, according to sex and general nativity and race of head of household:

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TABLE 3.—Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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46.1 49.2 38.4

3.2 50.9 41.9 55.0 54.3 48.8 48.4 48.7 50.1 47.1 47.4 20.9 49.0 50.4 44.8 41.5

1.3 41.6

.0 41.8 42.9 49.7 44.5 50.1 38.2 43.0 47.4 51.2 30.1 46.3 45.9 48.4 47.8 41.3

.0 47.9

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