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XIII. GLOVE MANUFACTURING.

A study was made of the operating forces of the glove-manufacturing industry in New York State. Detailed information was secured for 908 employees, and 262 households the heads of which were employed in the glove-manufacturing industry, were intensively studied. Of the total number of employees, about one-third, or 33.5 per cent, were foreign-born, 15.7 per cent were of native birth but of foreign father, and about one-half, or 50.8 per cent, were native-born persons of native father. The South Italians and Russian Hebrews reported in larger numbers than any other of the races of southern and eastern Europe, and the English reported in much larger numbers than any other race of the old immigration. Of the foreignborn in the households studied, 60.9 per cent of the males and 14.4 per cent of the females had had experience in the same kind of work before coming to this country, while 21.2 per cent of the males and 5.5 per cent of the females had been 'farmers or farm laborers abroad. The average weekly wage of the male employees 18 years of age or over was $12.33, and of the adult females it was $6.46. The average annual earnings of male heads of families who were employed in the industry were $650, and of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied they were $625. The average annual income of the families the heads of which were employed in the industry was $904. Slightly less than one-fourth, or 24.3 per cent, of the families studied derived their entire income from the earnings of the husbands, while 6.1 per cent were supported by the earnings of the husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 10.9 per cent from the earnings of the husbands and the contributions of the children. Of the total number of native households studied, 13.3 per cent kept boarders or lodgers, as against 11.2 per cent of the total foreign households. Among the households the heads of which were nativeborn, the average number of persons per room was 0.54, and per sleeping room 1.41, as compared to 0.74 person per room and 1.78 persons per sleeping room in the households the heads of which were of foreign birth. None of the households of either nativity group used all their rooms for sleeping purposes. In the foreign households the average monthly rent payment per capita was $2.27, as contrasted with $3.12 in the households the heads of which were of native birth. Of the families the heads of which were native-born, 34.4 per cent owned their homes, and of the families the heads of which were of foreign birth, 31.2 per cent.

Of the total number of native-born employees 20 years of age or over, 60.6 per cent, and of the foreign-born 67.8 per cent, were married. Of the foreign-born employees 98.3 per cent were able to read, and 97.9 per cent able both to read and to write. Of the foreign-born employees 21 years of age or over who had been in the United States five years or more, 54.3 per cent were fully naturalized and 30.9 per cent were in possession of first papers. None of the native-born and only 1.6 per cent of the foreign-born wage-earning males in the households studied were affiliated with labor organizations.

XIV. OIL REFINING.

A study was made of the operating forces of the oil-refining industry in the two principal oil-producing centers of the country Bayonne, New Jersey, and Whiting, Indiana. Detailed information was secured for 6,123 employees, and 525 households the heads of which were employed in the refineries were intensively studied. Of the total number of employees, 66.7 per cent were of foreign birth, 21.5 per cent were of native birth but of foreign father, and only 11.8 per cent were native-born persons of native father. The Poles, with 1,031 reporting, and the Slovaks, with 757, were the principal races of southern and eastern Europe engaged in the industry, while the Irish, with 830, followed by the Germans, with 313, were the races of old immigration represented in the largest numbers. None of the employees of foreign birth had had any experience in the same work before coming to this country, while 60.8 per cent had been farmers or farm laborers abroad. The average daily wage of male employees 18 years of age or over was $2.51, and the average weekly wage $13.81. The average annual earnings of male heads of families who were employed in the oil refineries were $662, and of all males 18 years

of age or over in the households studied they were $591. The average annual income of families the heads of which were working in the industry was $828. Slightly more than two-fifths, or 42.2 per cent, of the families studied derived their entire income from the earnings of the husbands, while 28.5 per cent were supported by the earnings of the husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 10.8 per cent by the earnings of the husbands and the contributions of the children. Only 9.7 per cent of the total number of native households studied kept boarders or lodgers, as contrasted with 34.2 per cent of those the heads of which were of foreign birth. Among the households the heads of which were native-born the average number of persons per room was 0.89, and per sleeping room 1.95, as against 1.39 persons per room and 2.45 persons per sleeping room in the households the heads of which were of foreign birth. None of the native households, but 11.9 per cent of the households the heads of which were foreign-born, used all their rooms for sleeping purposes. The greater degree of congestion in the latter class of households is also illustrated by the fact that the average monthly rent payment per capita was $1.55, as contrasted with $2.91 in households the heads of which were of native birth. About the same proportion of families of both nativity groups owned their homes, the percentage in the case of the foreign-born being 20.4 and the native-burn 20. Of the total number of native-born employees 20 years of age or over, 58.6 per cent, and of the foreign-born 71.5 per cent, were married. Only 85.7 per cent of the employees of foreign birth were able to read, and 82.7 per cent to both read and write. Of the total number of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races, 65.6 per cent were able to speak English. Of the foreign-born employees 21 years of age or over who had been in the United States five years or more, 36.3 per cent were naturalized and 21.7 per cent were in possession of first papers. Only 1.2 per cent of the wage-earning males of foreign birth and 5.8 per cent of the native-born in the households studied

XV. SUGAR REFINING.

The wage-earners in sugar refineries were studied in New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts. Detailed information was secured for 5,826 employees, and 194 households the heads of which were employed in the industry were intensively studied. Of the total

. number of employees, 85.3 per cent were of foreigh birth, while 8.4 per cent were of native birth but foreign father, and 6.3 per cent were native-born of native father. The Polish and Lithuanian, reporting to the number of 1,758 and 972, respectively, were the principal races of southern and eastern Europe engaged in the industry, and the German and Irish, with 691 and 416, respectively, were the races of past immigration represented in the largest numbers. Only 0.6 per cent of the foreign-born employees had had any experience in the same kind of work before coming to this country, while 60.8 per cent had been farmers or farm laborers abroad. The average weekly wage of employees 18 years of age or over was $11.82, the

average

annual earnings of male heads of families were $549, and the average annual earnings of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied were $522. The average annual income of families the heads of which were employed in the industry was $661. Of the total number of families studied, 30.2 per cent derived their entire income from the earnings of husbands, while exactly one-half the families were supported by the earnings of husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers and 8.1 per cent by the earnings of husbands and the contributions of children. Of the households the heads of which were of foreign birth, 59.8 per cent kept boarders or lodgers, the average number of persons per room in the foreign households being 1.54 and

per sleeping room 2.36, while 12.9 per cent of these households used all their rooms for sleeping purposes. The average monthly rent payment per person among households the heads of which were of foreign birth was $1.81. Only 0.5 per cent of the families the heads of which were foreign-born owned their homes.

Of the employees 20 years of age or over, 63 per cent of the nativeborn and 63.6 per cent of the foreign-born were married. Only 77.4 per cent of the employees of foreign birth were able to read and 72.8 per cent able to both read and write, while but 40 per cent of the foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races had learned to speak the English language. Of the foreign-born employees

21 years of age or over and resident in the United States at least five years, only 27.1 per cent were fully naturalized and 13.4 per cent in possession of first papers. This industry is practically without labor organization. Out of a total of 365 wage-earning males in the households studied of whom the inquiry was made as to whether or not they were in labor organizations, only 2 (Poles) answered in the affirmative.

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XVI. THE MANUFACTURE OF CIGARS AND TOBACCO.

The operating forces of cigar and tobacco factories were studied throughout the territory east of the Mississippi River. Detailed information was secured for 36,564 employees, and in Tampa, Florida, 127 households the heads of which were employed in the industry prin

were intensively studied. Of the total number of employees, 32.6 per cent were of foreign birth, while 15.5 per cent were of native birth but of foreign father, and over one-half, or 52 per cent, were native-born of native father. Of the races of foreign birth employed in the industry, the Cuban and Spanish were represented in largest numbers. The South Italian, Polish, and Magyar were the three cipal races of recent immigration engaged in the industry and the German and Irish of the races of old immigration. The South Italians reported to the number of 1,927, the Poles reported 850, the Magyars 534, the Germans 607, and the Irish 317. Of the employees of foreign birth, 55.3 per cent of the males and 29.2 per cent of the females had been engaged in the same kind of work before coming to this country, while 23.3 per cent of the males and 51.6 per cent of the females had been farmers or farm laborers in their native countries. The average daily wage of male employees 18 years of age or over was $1.92 and of the female employees 18 years of age or over $1.15. Of all foreign-born employees 20 years of age or over 58.4 per cent were married, while only 45.6 per cent of the native-born were so reported. Of the employees of foreign birth, 91.2 per cent were able to read and 90.1 per cent able both to read and to write, while of the foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races only 28.6 per cent were able to speak the English language. Of the foreign-born employees 21 years

of age or over who had been in the United States five years or more, only 14.5 per cent were fully naturalized and 4.5 per cent were in possession of first papers.

In preparing the data for publication four general divisions were made:

(1) General survey of the industry as a whole.
(2) General survey of the industry in the East.
(3) General survey of the industry in the Middle West.

(4) General survey of the industry in the South, including a PART III.-STATISTICAL SUMMARY, BY GENERAL NATIVITY

AND RACE.

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