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per cent of the females were engaged in needlework of some kind abroad. The average weekly earnings of male employees 18 years of age or over were $13.30 and of females $8.02. The average annual earnings of male heads of families were $530, and the earnings per annum of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied were $513. The average annual income of families the heads of which were employed in the industry was $713. Of the total number of families studied, 48.2 per cent were supported entirely by husbands, 14.6 per cent were maintained by the earnings of husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 17.3 per cent derived their income from the earnings of husbands and the contributions of children. Of the households the heads of which were of foreign birth, 19.3 per cent kept boarders or lodgers, and showed an average of 1.34 persons per room and 2.57 per sleeping room. Of the households the heads of which were native-born of foreign father, 4 per cent had boarders or lodgers and exhibited an average of 0.90 person per room and 2.43 persons per sleeping room. None of the second generation used all rooms for sleeping purposes, but 5.8 per cent of those the heads of which were of foreign birth are so reported. The average monthly rent payment per capita among households the heads of which were of foreign birth was $2.30. Of the households the heads of which were of foreign birth only 23.5 per cent owned their homes, as contrasted with 60.7 per cent of those the heads of which were of native birth and of foreign father.

Of the total number of employees 20 years of age or over, 31.4 per cent of the native-born and 56.1 per cent of the foreign-born were married. Slightly more than nine-tenths of the employees of foreign birth could read, and 88.8 per cent could both read and write. Of the total number of employees of foreign birth, only 59.7 per cent were able to speak the English language, and only 28.9 per cent were fully naturalized. Only 3.6 per cent of the wage-earning males in the households studied who were native-born of foreign father, as against 18.4 per cent of the foreign-born, were affiliated with labor organizations.

In preparing the report on the clothing manufacturing industry four general divisions of the data were made:

(1) General survey of the industry as a whole, which consists of a statistical summary of all the data secured from employees and the members of their households.

(2) General survey of the industry in New York City.
(3) General survey of the industry in Baltimore.
(4) General survey of the industry in Chicago.

IX. THE MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES.

The boot and shoe manufacturing industry was investigated throughout the territory east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio and Potomac Rivers, the principal emphasis being placed upon the establishments in the States of Ilinois, Missouri, and Massachusetts. Detailed information was secured for 19,946 employees, and 710 households the heads of which were employed in the industry were intensively studied. Of the total number of employees, 27.3 per foreign father and 47 per cent native-born persons of native father. The South Italians and Russian Hebrews, reporting to the number of 685 and 571, respectively, were the principal races of southern and eastern Europe engaged in the industry, while the French Canadians, with 550, other Canadians, with 409, and Irish, with 342, were the races of past immigration represented in the largest numbers.

Of the foreign-born male employees, 41.4 percent had had experience in the same kind of work before coming to this country, while 29.2 per cent had been farmers or farm laborers abroad. The average weekly wage of male employees 18 years of age or over was $12.10, and of females $8.16. The average annual earnings of male heads of families were $573, and of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied they were $502. The average annual income of families the heads of which were employed in the industry was $765. Slightly over one-third, or 34.8 per cent, of the families studied derived their entire income from the earnings of husbands, while 21.8 per cent were supported by the earnings of husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 11.7 per cent by the earnings of husbands and contributions of children. Only 17.7 per cent of the native households kept boarders or lodgers, as contrasted with 36.4 per cent of those the heads of which were of foreign birth. Among the households the heads of which were native-born, the average number of persons per room was 0.75, and per sleeping room, 1.67, as against 1.15 persons per room and 2.10 persons per sleeping room in households the heads of which were of foreign birth. None of the native households, and but 1.9 per cent of the foreign, used all their rooms for sleeping purposes. The greater degree of congestion in the latter class of households is also illustrated by the fact that the average monthly rent payment per capita was $2.19, as contrasted with $3.84 in households the heads of which were of native birth. Of the families the heads of which were of native birth, 17.6 per cent owned their homes, as against 13.5 per cent of the families the heads of which were foreign-born.

About the same proportion of the male employees 20 years of age or over in both nativity groups were married, the percentage of the foreign-born being 59.6, and of the native-born 59.8. Of the total number of foreign-born employees, 95.3 per cent were able to read, and 94.1 per cent able both to read and to write. About three-fourths or 75.1 per cent, of the foreign-born employees of non-Englishspeaking races were able to speak English. About one-third, or 33.1 per cent, of the foreign-born employees 21 years of age or over and resident in the United States five years or more, were fully naturalized, while 20.5 per cent were in possession of first papers. Of the native-born wage-earning males in the households studied 35.3 per cent, and of the foreign-born 37.1 per cent, were members of labor organizations.

The report upon this industry is divided into three parts: (1) General survey of the industry as a whole; (2) general survey of the industry in the East, including studies of two representative boot and shoe manufacturing communities; and (3) general survey of the industry in the Middle West.

48296°_VOL 19—11-3

X. FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.

The operating forces of the furniture manufacturing establishments were studied throughout the territory east of the Mississippi River, but special stress was laid upon the centers of the industry, such as Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Rockford, Illinois. Detailed information was secured for 4,295 employees, and 338 households the heads of which were employed in the industry were intensively studied. Of the total number of employees, 59.1 per cent were of foreign birth, while 19.6 per cent were of native birth, but foreign father, and 21.2 per cent were native-born of native father. Of the foreign-born employees, the southern and eastern Europeans were represented in greatest numbers by the Poles, with 482 reporting, followed by the Lithuanians, with 130. Of the races of old immigration the Dutch and Swedes, reporting 798 and 631, appeared in the largest numbers. Of the foreign-born employees, 10.4 per cent were engaged in the same kind of work before coming to this country, while 49.3

per cent were farmers or farm laborers abroad. The aver. age weekly wage of employees 18 years of age or over was $11.67, the average annual earnings of male heads of families were $598, and the earnings per annum of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied were $575. The average annual income of families the heads of which were employed in the industry was $769. Of the total number of families studied, 42.3 per cent were supported entirely by the earnings of the husbands, while 13.2 per cent derived their entire income from the earnings of husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 24.9 per cent from the earnings of husbands and the contributions of children. Of the households the heads of which were of native birth, 11.3 per cent kept boarders or lodgers, as against 18.8 per cent of the foreign-born. Among the households the heads of which were native born, the average number of persons per room was 0.68 and per sleeping room 1.66, as contrasted with 0.98 person per room and 2.34 persons per sleeping room in households the heads of which were of foreign birth. The greater degree of congestion in the latter class of households is illustrated by the fact that the average monthly rent payment per capita was $1.51, as contrasted with $2.13 in households the heads of which were of native birth. Of the families the heads of which were nativeborn, 50.8 per cent, and of those the heads of which were of foreign birth, 63.3 per cent, owned their homes.

Of the employees 20 years of age or over, 66.5 per cent of the nativeborn and 68.9 per cent of the foreign-born were married. Of the foreign-born employees, 96.1 per cent were able to read and 94.3 per cent able to both read and write. Of the total number of foreignborn employees of non-English-speaking races, 78.9 per cent had acquired the use of the English language. Of the foreign-born employees 21 years of age or over who had been in the United States at least five years, 55.1 per cent were fully naturalized and 29.8 per cent had first papers. None of the native-born males in the house

. holds studied, and only 1.1 per cent of the foreign-born were members The data collected in connection with the study of the industry are presented in tabulations covering the industry as a whole, with some special treatment relating to conditions in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

XI. COLLAR, CUFF, AND SHIRT MANUFACTURING.

The collar, cuff, and shirt manufacturing establishments were studied in Troy, New York, in which city almost all the establishments of the industry are located. Detailed information was secured for 1,508 employees, and 264 households, the heads of which were employed in the industry were intensively studied. Of the total number of employees, 13.4 per cent were of foreign birth, while 36.5 per cent were of native birth but of foreign father, and 50.1 per cent were nativeborn of native father. Among the foreign-born the Russian is the principal race of eastern Europe engaged in the industry, while of the races of past immigration the Irish are represented in the greatest numbers. Of the foreign-born female employees, only 3.6 per cent had had any experience in the same kind of work before coming to this country; 35.7 per cent had been farmers or farm laborers abroad. The average weekly wage of the male employees 18 years of age or over was $12.56, and of the females $7.63; the average annual earnings of male heads of families were $662, and of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied, $637. The average annual income of families the heads of which were employed in the industry was $861. Of the total number of families studied, 39.8 per cent derived their entire income from the earnings of the husbands, while 2.1 per cent were supported by the earnings of the husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 9.3 per cent by the earnings of husbands and contributions of children. Of the households the heads of which were native-born 8.9 per cent kept boarders or lodgers and of the foreign-born 6.4 per cent. Among the households the heads of which were native-born the average number of persons per room was 0.63 and per sleeping room 1.65, asscompared to 0.74 persons per room and 1.75 persons per sleeping room in the households the heads of which were of foreign birth. None of either the native or foreign households used all rooms for sleeping purposes. The average monthly rent payment per capita in households the heads of which were foreign-born was $2.70, as against $3.26 in households the heads of which were of native birth. Only 6.8 per cent of the native-born families owned their homes, as against 21.7 per cent of the families the heads of which were of foreign birth.

Of the native-born employees 20 years of age or over only 22.5 per cent, and of the foreign-born 42.2 per cent, were married. Of the foreign-born employees, 93.8 per cent were able to read, and 93.3 per cent able both to read and to write. Of the foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races, 80.2 per cent had learned to speak the English language. Of the wage-earning males of native birth in the households studied 3.5 per cent, and of the foreign-born 6.6 per cent, were members of labor organizations.

Information secured for households and for employees is presented in tabulations relating to the industry as a whole.

XII. LEATHER TANNING, CURRYING, AND FINISHING.

A study was made of the operating forces in the leather-tanning industry in Wisconsin and Pennsylvania, and in the leather currying and finishing industry in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Detailed information was secured for 12,839 employees, and 362 households the heads of which were employed in the industry were intensively studied. Of the total number of employees 67 per cent were of foreign birth, 15.7 per cent were of native birth but of foreign father, and 17.4 per cent were native-born of native father. The Poles, , Slovaks, and Greeks were the three principal races from southern and eastern Europe engaged in the industry; these races reported to the number of 2,799, 632, and 616, respectively. The German, Swedish,

, and Irish of the races of past immigration were represented in the largest numbers, the numbers reporting being 1,161 Germans, 327 Swedes, and 260 Irish. Only 6 per cent of the employees of foreign

6 birth had had any experience in the same kind of work before coming to this country, while 58.1 per cent were farmers or farm laborers abroad. The average weekly wage of male employees 18 years of age or over was $10.64, and of female workers $6.87. The average annual earnings of male heads of families who were employed in leather tanning, currying, and finishing were $511, and of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied they were $431. The average annual income of families the heads of which were working in the industry was $671. Slightly more than two-fifths, or 44.6 per cent, of the families studied derived their entire income from the earnings of husbands, while 24 per cent were supported by the earnings of husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 17.1 per cent by the earnings of husbands and the contributions of children. Of the total number of households the heads of which were native-born 15.7 per cent kept boarders or lodgers, as against 29.7 per cent of those the heads of which were foreign-born. Among the households the heads of which were native-born the average number of persons per room was 0.78 and per sleeping room 1.85, as against 1.25 persons per room and 2.28 persons per sleeping room in the households the heads of which were foreign-born. Of the native households 1.2 per cent, and of the foreign 1.4 per cent, used all their rooms for sleeping purposes. In the latter class of households the average monthly rent payment per capita was $1.61, as contrasted with $2.64 in households the heads of which were of native birth. Among the native households 9.6 per cent owned their homes, as contrasted with 20.9 per cent of the foreign-born.

Of the total number of native-born employees 20 years of age or over, 61 per cent, and of the foreign-born 64.4 per cent, were married. Only 87 per cent of the employees of foreign birth were able to read, and 83.8 per cent able both to read and to write. Of the total number of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races, only 49.3 per cent were able to speak English. Of the foreign-born employees 21 years of age or over and resident in the United States at least 5

cent were citizens and 21.4 per cent were possessors years of first papers of naturalization. Only 6.7 per cent of the wageearning males of native birth and 5,3 per cent of the foreign-born

36.2 per

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