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per room was 1.11 and per sleeping room 2.32, as against 1.63 persons per room and 3.02 persons per sleeping room in the households the heads of which were of foreign birth. Of the native households 2.32 per cent, and of the foreign 2.2 per cent, used all their rooms for sleeping purposes. The greater degree of congestion in the latter class of households is also illustrated by the fact that the average monthly rent payment per capita was $1.03, as contrasted with $1.73 in households the heads of which were of native birth. Only 19.7 per cent of the families the heads of which were foreign-born, as against 34.8 per cent of those the heads of which were native-born, owned their homes.

The report upon this industry consists of five parts: (1) General survey of the industry as a whole, which consists of a statistical summary based upon the total number of employees and households studied; (2) survey of the industry in Pennsylvania, including an intensive study of two representative bituminous coal-mining communities; (3) a study of the industry in the Middle West; (4) a study of the industry in the Southwest; and (5) a study of the industry in the South, including an intensive study of the Birmingham, Alabama, district.

IV. GLASS MANUFACTURING.

The glass-manufacturing industry was studied mainly in the States of Missouri

, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Maryland. Four divisions of the industry, the manufacture of plate glass, window glass, bottles, and glass tableware, were included within the scope of the investigation. No establishments were studied in the southern States beyond the two mentioned, for the reason that the operating forces were principally composed of persons of native birth. Detailed information was secured for 11,615 employees, and 660 households the heads of which were employed in the industry were intensively studied. Of the total number of employees, 39.3 per cent were of foreign birth, 18.4 per cent were of native birth but of foreign father, and 42.3 per cent were native-born persons of native father. Among the races of old immigration the Germans, with 709 reporting, were most largely represented, followed by the Belgians (race not specified), with 286, and the English, with 202. The Slovaks, with 718, the Poles, with 671, and the South Italians, with 628, were numerically the most important races of recent immigration.

The average annual earnings of male heads of families who were employed in the industry were $596, and of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied $574, while the average annual income of families the heads of which were working in the industry was $755. Slightly over two-fifths, or 44.8 per cent, of the families studied derived their entire income from the earnings of husbands, while 31 per cent were supported by the earnings of husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 10.3 per cent by the earnings of husbands and the contributions of children. Only 8.5 per cent of the total number of native households studied kept boarders or lodgers, as contrasted with 41.4 per cent of those the heads of which were foreign-born. Among the households the heads of which were native-born the average number of persons per room was 0.80, and per sleeping room 1.87, as against 1.44 persons per room and 2.59 per sleeping room in the households the heads of which were of foreign birth. Only 0.8 per cent of the native households and 3 per cent of the households the heads of which were foreign-born used all their rooms for sleeping purposes. The greater degree of congestion in the latter class of households is also illustrated by the fact that the average rent payment per capita was $1.44, as contrasted with $2.66 in households the heads of which were of native birth. Of the foreign families, 29 per cent owned their homes, as against 37.4 per cent of the famílies the heads of which were of native birth. One per cent of the wage-earning males of foreign birth in the households studied and 9.2 per cent of those native-born were members of labor organizations.

In preparing the material for publication the data obtained from employees and households were included in tabulations covering the whole industry, and divisions made according to the four branches of the industry studied. The conditions prevailing in different localities are also set forth by two community studies-one representative of the Middle West and the other of western Pennsylvania.

V. WOOLEN AND WORSTED MANUFACTURING.

The woolen and worsted goods manufacturing industry was investigated in the North Atlantic States. Detailed information was secured for 23,388 employees, and 440 households the heads of which were employed in the industry were intensively studied. Of the total number of employees, 61.9 per cent were of foreign birth, 24.4 per cent were of native birth but of foreign father, and 13.7 per cent were native-born persons of native father. The South Italians, with 3,301 reporting, the Poles, with 2,159, and the North Italians, with 1,700, were the three principal races of recent immigration engaged in the industry, while the English, with 3,783, the French Canadians, with 3,429, and the Irish, with 2,612, were the races of old immigration represented in the largest numbers. Of the foreign-born employees, 22.1 per cent of the males and 41.9 per cent of the females had had experience in the same kind of work before coming to this country, while 42.4 per cent of the male employees and 34.5 per cent of the female employees had been farmers or farm laborers in their native countries. The average weekly wage of the male employees 18 years of age or over was $10.49, and of the female employees $8.18. The average annual earnings of male heads of families who were employed in the industry were $400, and of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied, $346. The average annual income of families the heads of which were working in the industry was $661. Slightly less than one-fourth, or 24.9 per cent of the families studied derived their entire income from the earnings of husbands, while 14.9 per cent were supported by the earnings of husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 13.1 per cent by the earnings of husbands and contributions of children. Of the foreign households 33.2 per cent kept boarders or lodgers. Among the households the heads of which were native born the average number of persons per room was 0.71 and per sleeping room 1.61, as contrasted with 1.19 persons per room and

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were of foreign birth. Of the foreign households, 0.5 per cent used all their rooms for sleeping purposes. In the latter class of households the average monthly rent payment per capita was $1.97, as against $3.34 in households the heads of which were of native birth. Among the families the heads of which were of foreign birth, 10 per cent owned their homes.

Of the total number of native-born employees 20 years of age or over 42.6 per cent, and of the foreign-born 57 per cent, were married. Only 84.2 per cent of the foreign-born employees were able to read, and 82.5 per cent able to both read and write. Only 48.2 per cent of the total number of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races were able to speak English. Of the foreign-born employees 21 years of age or over who had been in the United States 5 years or more only 31.6 per cent were naturalized, and 20.9 per cent were in possession of first papers. Only 4.1 per cent of the foreign-born wage-earning males, as contrasted with 21.9 per cent of the nativeborn, were affiliated with labor organizations.

The report on this industry consists of general tabulations, including the data received from all employees and households studied, together with an intensive study of a representative community in Massachusetts engaged in the manufacture of worsted goods.

VI. SILK GOODS MANUFACTURING AND DYEING.

Establishments engaged in the manufacturing and dyeing of silk goods were studied in the States of New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, the greater emphasis being placed upon the industry in Paterson, New Jersey, and in the anthracite-coal region. The last-mentioned locality was intensively studied and separately presented for the reason that it illustrates the establishment of an industry in a thickly populated immigrant section, where a large supply of cheap labor is available. Detailed information was secured for 12,994 employees, and 272 households the heads of which were engaged in the industry were closely studied. Of the total number of employees, 31.3 per cent were of foreign birth, 44.9 per cent were of native birth but of foreign father, and 20.8 per cent were native-born of native father. The southern and eastern European races were represented in largest numbers in the operating forces of the industry by the North Italians, with 644 reporting, followed by the South Italians, with 270, the Polish with 259, and the Russian Hebrews, with 254. The races of old immigration, from Great Britain and northern Europe, were represented most largely by the Germans, with 839, the English, with 599, and the Dutch, with 254. Of the total number of male operatives who were born abroad, 73.9 per cent were employed in textile manufacturing before coming to the United States, and only 6.5 per cent had been farmers or farm laborers in their native countries, while 76.1

per cent of the females were engaged in textile manufacturing abroad and 7.5 per cent were farming or in farm labor. The average weekly wage of male employees was $12.50 and of females $7.66. The average annual earnings of male heads of families were $448, and the average annual earnings of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied were $431. The families the heads of which were silk-mill operatives had an average annual income of $635. Of the total number of families studied, 46 per cent depended entirely upon the husbands for support, while 10.1 per cent were maintained by the earnings of husbands supplemented by the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 14.9 per cent derived their income from the earnings of husbands and the contributions of children. Only 4.8 per cent of the households the heads of which were native-born kept boarders or lodgers, as contrasted with 16.3 per cent of the households the heads of which were of foreign birth. The average monthly rent payment per capita in immigrant households was $2, and in households the heads of which were nativeborn, $2.55. The last-named class of households show an average of 0.74 person per room and 1.76 persons per sleeping room, as against 1.17 persons per room and 2.22 persons per sleeping room in households the heads of which were foreign-born. None of the households studied in connection with this industry used all their rooms for sleeping purposes. Only 7.4 per cent of the immigrant families studied owned their homes, as contrasted with 23.8 per cent of those the heads of which were native-born.

Of the total number of employees 20 years of age or over for whom information was received, 27.9 per cent of the native-born and 61.1 per cent of the foreign-born were married. Foreign-born employees exhibit a high degree of literacy, 97.3 per cent being able to read and 96.1 per cent able to both read and write. Of the total number of employees of foreign birth and of non-English-speaking races, 78.8 per cent were able to speak English. Of the foreign-born employees 21 years of age or over who had been in the United States at least 5 years, 61.3 per cent had attained full citizenship, and 18.4 per cent had secured first papers. Only 3.1 per cent of the wage-earning

males of foreign birth in the households studied and 18.2 per cent of those of native birth were affiliated with labor organizations.

VII. COTTON GOODS MANUFACTURING.

Information was secured for a total of 66,800 cotton-mill operatives in the North Atlantic States and a detailed study made of 1,061 households the heads of which were employed in the cotton ods manufacturing industry. Of the total number of employees 68.7 per cent were of foreign birth, 21.8 per cent were of native birth but of foreign father, and 9.4 per cent were native-born of native father. Of the races of old immigration, the French Canadians, English, and Irish were principally employed, these races reporting to the number of 13,043, 5,274, and 4,287, respectively. The southern and eastern Europeans were represented in greatest numbers by the Poles, with 8,920, the Portuguese, with 5,911, and the Greeks, with 2,739. Of the male operatives of foreign birth 15.8 per cent, and of the females 34.5 per cent, had been engaged in the same industry abroad. On the other hand, 56.2 per cent of the male and 50.7 per cent of the female employees who were foreign-born had been farmers or farm laborers in their native countries. The average weekly wage for male employees 18 years of age or over was $9.68 and that for females 18 years of age or over was $7.97. The average annual earnings of male heads of families who were employed as cotton-mill oper

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the total number of families studied 32.2 per cent depended entirely upon the husbands for their support, while 9.3 per cent were maintained by earnings of husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 18.9 per cent by earnings of husbands supplemented by the contributions of children. Of the households the heads of which were foreign-born 21.2 per cent had boarders or lodgers, as against 14.5 per cent of those the heads of which were of native birth. The attempt to reduce the cost of living, or to supplement the earnings of the heads of families by keeping boarders or lodgers, resulted in a high degree of congestion, especially in the immigrant households. The average number of persons per room in households the heads of which were foreign-born was 1.26 and the average number per sleeping room 2.13, as contrasted with 0.83 person per room and 1.79 per sleeping room in households the heads of which were native-born. The average monthly rent payment per capita in immigrant households was $1.47 and in households the heads of which were nativeborn, $2.41. None of the households the heads of which were of native birth used all their rooms for sleeping purposes, while 3.3 per cent of the immigrant households slept in all rooms. Of the families the heads of which were native-born, 6.9 per cent and of those the heads of which were foreign-born 6.1 per cent owned their homes.

Of the foreign-born employees 57 per cent and of the native-born 42.6 per cent were married. Of the employees of foreign birth, 80.6 per cent were able to read and 77.8 per cent able both to read and to write. Of the total number of foreign-born employees of nonEnglish-speaking races, 42.1 per cent were able to speak English. The naturalized persons among the employees of foreign birth 21 years of age or over and resident in the United States at least 5 years, form a proportion of 29.8, while 8.8 per cent had taken out first papers. Only 7 per cent of the foreign-born wage-earning males in the households studied and 11.3 per cent of the native-born were members of labor organizations.

VIII. CLOTHING MANUFACTURING.

The operating forces engaged in the manufacture of men's and women's clothing were studied in New York, N. Y., Rochester, N. Y., Baltimore, Md., and Chicago, Ill. Both the factory and contract systems were included in the investigation. Detailed information was secured for 19,502 employees, and an intensive study was made of 906 households the heads of which were engaged in the manufacture of clothing. Of the total number of employees in the industry, 72.2 per cent were of foreign birth, 22.4 per cent were of second generation, or native-born of foreign father, and only 5.3 per cent were native-born of native father. Of the foreign-born employees, the southern and eastern Europeans were represented in the greatest numbers by the Russian Hebrews, with 3,618 reporting, the South Italians, with 2,815, and the Hebrews other than Russian with 1,390. Of the races of old immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe, the Germans appeared in by far the greatest numbers, their 656 being followed by the 72 of the Irish and the 63 of the Swedes. Of the foreign-born male employees, 62.5 per cent had been engaged in making clothing in their native countries and 75.6

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