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than the other races studied and consequently having less opportunity to acquire the language. Of the races of recent arrival in the United States the Syrians exhibit the highest percentage of persons with a residence of ten years or over able to speak English, the Hebrews being next in order, closely followed by the North Italians.

The table which immediately follows and the accompanying chart show, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race, the per cent of 246,673 employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English:

TABLE 72.Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of

coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, how

ever, is lor all non-English-speaking races.)

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Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian..
Cuban.
Danish..
Dutch.
Finnish
French..
German.
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other.
Italian, North..
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Macedonian.
Magyar..
Mexican.
Montenegrin
Norwegian.
Polish.
Portuguese..
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian.
Spanish
Swedish
Syrian.
Turkish.

658 3,861

940 9, 231 9, 679 3,005

594 1, 450 3,594 1,831 18,831 5, 440 3,660 1,359 13, 147 15, 990 9, 148

573
11,335

203
250

674
40, 050
3, 483
1,857
6, 430

802
1,627
24, 463
4,716
1.921
5, 309

980
325

94.7 97.6 81.8 93.3 84.5 45.0 98.8 99.3 94.3 97.9 99.7 75.5 96.7 99. 4 94.1 83.1

85.4 (a)

91.2 74.3 100.0 98.7 93.3 91.5 93.3 89.8 76.2 78.6 92.2 95.0 33.8 100.0 91.4

53.7 58.7 19.6 68.2 50. 5 15.3 96.1 80.6 48.3 61.1 83.6 32. 7 72.3 76.5 56.2 45.7 50.5 21.0 45. 1 56.5 36.5 96.6 40.7 34. 2 32.8 42. 4 35.7 40.9 54.1 50.6 18.5 94.0 51.3 22.0

54.9 66.0 20.3 79.4 50.9 19.1 96.5 86. 1 50.3 68.6 87.5 33. 5 74.7 79.5 58.8 48.7 51.3 21.1 46.4 59.6 38.0 96.9 43.5 45. 2 33.3 43.6 36.8 41. 2 55. 6 51,7 19.5 94.7 54.6 22.5

(a)

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Table 72.Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of

coming to the United States and race-Continued.

[blocks in formation]

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian..
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Danish.
Dutch.
Finnish.
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian
Hebrew, Other..
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Macedonian
Magyar.
Mexican
Norwegian.
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian.
Russian,
Ruthenian
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian.
Spanish.
Swedish
Syrian.
Turkish..

14 600

5
8,216

210
523

60
251
302

396 1,835

569 1,366

388 1,853 3, 741 1, 150

1 617

2

49 7,578 2,379

137 887 79 20 443 185 131 154 442

5

(a)

93.1 (a)

75.8 78.3 39. 1 100.0 99.3 93.8 96.0 99. 2 59.0 97.0 99.3 74.8 67.7

88.1 (a)

84. 8 (a) 100.0 76.8 77.5 95.5 97.3

60.0 (a)

86.0 94.7 40.9 100.0 90.2

50.0

29.5 (a)

31.2 14.4 11.7 96.9 34.3 20.6 28.4 62.1

6.7 67.7 79.9 22.9 13. 1 13.6

57.1 58.7 80.0 54. 2 21.4 19.9 98,3 73.7 24.5 45.5 80.2 12.3 75. 7 86.6 39.1 25.8

22.3 (a)

24.0 (a)

91.8 15. 5 27.0 32.8 45.9 10.1 20.0 26.6 30.3 19. 1 94. 2 36.4 40.0

15.1 (a) 90.0

7.3 11.0 20.9 35.7

6.8 15.8 10.9 22.9 14.7 89.5

1.8 40.0

[blocks in formation]

Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban..
Danish..
Dutch
Finnish
French..
German.
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other.
Italian, North,
Italian, South..
Lithuanian.
Macedonian.
Magyar...
Mexican..
Montenegrin.
Norwegian.
Polish..
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian
Ruthenian.
Servian..
Slovak
Slovenian.
Spanish
Swedish.
Syrian.
Turkish.

672 4,461

945 17,447 9. 899 3, 528

654 1, 701 3, 896 2, 227 20, 666 6,009 5, 026 1, 747 15,000 19, 731 10, 298

574 11,952

205 250

723 47, 628 5, 862 1, 994 7,317

881 1,647 24. 906 4, 901 2,052 5, 463 1, 422

330

95. 2 96.4 83.3 84.5 83.5 43.3 99.1 99.3 94.2 97.5 99.6 69.3 96.9 99.4 86.4 76.9

86.4 (a)

89.9 72. 2 100.0 98.9 88.5 85.0 94. 6 93. 3 73.1 80.0 91.6 95.0 34.9 100.0

90.8 (a)

53.6 56.0 19.8 51.9 49.8 14.9 96.1 76.5 46.2 55. 6 82. 3 30.5 71.2 77.1 53. 1. 40. 4 46. 7 21.0 43. 7 56. 2 36.5 96.2 35.7 25. 1 32.1 41.7 33. 2 40.6 53. 5 49.6 18.3 93.9 44.3 22.3

51.9 65.0 20.6 67.5 50. 3 19.2 96.6 84. 2 48.3 64.5 86.8 31.5 75. O 81.1 56.3 44.4 48, 1 21.3 45. 2 59.0 38.0 96.5 39.1 37.8 33.3 43.9 34. 4 41.0 55. 1 50.9 19.5 94. 7 48.9 22. 7

Total..

246, 673

88.7

48.3

53.2

[graphic]

ܕ .

48296°—VOL 19-11-14

Per cent of foreign-born female employees who speak English, by race.

years of

The preceding tabulations were planned to show the relative adaptiveness and progress of immigrants of a younger as compared with those of an older age, according to the time of their arrival in this country. The significant fact disclosed by the grand total for both sexes is that a much greater proportion of the immigrants who were under 14

age when they came to the United States are able to speak English at the present time as compared with those who were 14 years of age or over when they immigrated to this country. The most notable progress in acquiring the ability to speak English of the younger immigrants, as contrasted with the older, is shown in the case of the Armenian, Bohemian and Moravian, Bulgarian, Finnish, French, Greek, South Italian, Magyar, Montenegrin, Polish, Portuguese, Roumanian, Russian, Ruthenian, Servian, Slovenian, and Servian races. This condition of affairs is not only due to the greater adaptability of the younger immigrants, but also to their greater opportunities in the way of attending the public school and in mingling with native Americans. The females, as compared with the males, not only exhibit smaller proportions able to speak English, but also a less degree of advancement among those less than 14 years old when they arrived in this country.

The relative progress of the younger or older immigrants in the households studied, according to their age at the time of arrival in the United States, in acquiring the ability to speak English is shown, according to race of individual, in the table which immediately follows. Table 73.Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by

age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This tablo Includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total,

however, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

Per cent who speak

English, by age at time of coming to United States.

Number reporting complete

data.

Race of individual.

Under 14.

14 or over.

99.0 91.2 92.0 85. 7 84. 3 82.7 48.8 100.0 100.0 87.9 98.3 85. 8 96.8 72. 6 94.8 90.7 83.9

Armenian
Bohemian and Moravian.
Breva.
Bulgarian..
Canadian, French.
Croatian..
Cuban.
Danish.
Dutch.
Finnish.
Flemish.
French
German
Greek.
Hebrew
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese..
Lithuanian.
Macedonian.
Magyar..
Mexican.
Norwegian.
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian.
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian.
Spanish.
Swedish
Syrian.
Turkish.

Total..

437 1,187

87 761 1,596 1,839 135

46 297 307 219

413 2, 295 1, 247 2, 412 1,864 5, 453

77 2,646

91 3,109 103

58
6,730

870
249

274
1,923

285 3,549

432

125
1,056

628
443

67.9 61.7 50.7

6.6 55.9 39.4 17 0 90.0 84. 1 58. 2 62.9 59.0 78. 4 18.5 67.3 49.5 37.3 18. 2 46.0 13. 2 35. 1 11.7 95.8 40.1 32. 2 28.9 28.4 38.8 12.5 46.4 56.6 17.5 93.3 67.7 1.4

91.0

79.3 42.3 100.0 81.2 87.1 50.0 77.4 75.5 38.5 85. 2 100.0

51.1 100.0

93. 1 (a)

43, 249

86.6

44.9

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the total number of foreign-born individuals who were less than 14 years of age at the time of their arrival in this country 86.6 per cent, as shown by the table above, can now speak English, while of those who were 14 years of age or older when they came to the United States only 44.9 per cent are now able to speak the English language. The same greater adaptability and progress among the younger, as contrasted with the older immigrants, is indicated in the case of each race, the most marked difference in favor of the younger immigrants being noticeable in the case of the Brava, Bulgarian, Greek, Magyar, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Ruthenian, Slovak, and Slovenian races.

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