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PART II.—SUMMARY OF DATA SECURED ACCORDING TO PRINCIPAL

INDUSTRIES.

CHAPTER I.

GENERAL INDUSTRIAL INVESTIGATION.

Introduction—I. Iron and steel manufacturing—11. Slaughtering and meat pack

ing—III. Bituminous coal mining-IV. Glass manufacturing-V. Woolen and worsted manufacturing-VI. Silk goods manufacturing and dyeing-VII. Cotton goods manufacturing-VIII. Clothing manufacturing IX. The manufacture of boots and shoes-X. Furniture manufacturing—XI. Collar, cuff, and shirt manufacturing-XII. Leather tanning, currying, and finishing—XIII. Glove manufacturing—XIV. Oil refining-XV. Sugar refining-XVI. The manufacture of cigars and tobacco.

INTRODUCTION.

In the course of the general industrial investigation 21 of the principal industries of the country were extensively and intensively studied. One other special study was made of immigrants engaged in temporary or seasonal occupations. Moreover, detailed information was secured for the operating forces of 16 other industries of relatively less importance than the 21 mentioned above. These data were not so exhaustively tabulated and are treated under the title of “Diversified industries."In the present connection the salient facts developed by the study of 16 of the principal branches of mining and manufacturing enterprise are briefly brought together according to industries.

I. IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING.

Iron and steel manufacturing in all its aspects was studied in the territory east of the Mississippi River. Detailed information was received for 86,089 employees of the industry, and an intensive study was made of 2,456 households the heads of which were employed in iron and steel manufacturing establishments. Of the total number of employees in the industry, 57.7 per cent were found to be of foreign birth. The principal races of old immigration were the Germans, with 4,426 employees reporting, the Irish, with 2,448, and the English, with 2,340. The races of recent immigration reporting in largest numbers were the Slovaks, with 9,029, the Poles, with 7,897, the Magyars, with 4,675, and the Croatians, with 4,003. 'Of the total number of iron and steel workers, 28.9 per cent were native-born of native father and 13.4 per cent were of native birth but foreign father. Of the total number of employees of foreign birth, only 8.6 per cent had been employed in the same industry abroad, while 64.4 per cent had been farmers or farm laborers in their native countries. & Immigrants in Industries: Diversified industries. Reports of the Immigration Commission. (S. Doc. No. 633, pt. 21, 61st Cong., 2d sess.)

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The average weekly wage of employees 18 years of age or over, not taking into consideration lost time, was $14.35. Lost time was taken into consideration in computing annual earnings, and the average annual earnings of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied were only $346. The average annual earnings of male heads of families were $409, and the average annual family income was $568. As regards the sources of family income, it was found that 40.5 per cent of all the families studied derived their income entirely from the husband, while 33.1 per cent, composed principally of southern and eastern Europeans, secured their income from earnings of husbands and contributions of boarders or lodgers. The families whose heads were native-born more generally received contributions of children than did those heads of which were born abroad. Of the total number of families, 7.8 per cent were entirely supported by the earnings of husbands and the contributions of children. Of the foreign-born families, 41,5 per cent supplemented the earnings of the heads by keeping boarders or lodgers, as contrasted with only 8.3 per cent of the families the heads of which were native-born. This practice led to a high degree of congestion within the households the heads of which were foreignborn. The average number of persons per room in foreign households was 1.76, as compared with 0.93 among the families the heads of which were of native birth; and the average number of persons per sleeping room in foreign households was 2.89, as contrasted with 1.96 in the native households. The average rent per capita in foreign households was only $1.14 and that in native households was $1.71. Fourteen and seven-tenths per cent of the foreign households used all rooms for sleeping purposes, as against only 3.8 per cent of the households the heads of which were native-born. Of the families the heads of which were foreign-born, 20.6 per cent owned their homes, as compared with 15.1 per cent of those the heads of which were native-born.

Of the native-born employees 20 years of age or over, 64.6 per cent were married, and of the total foreign-born 67.2 per cent. Of the foreign-born employees, 84.2 per cent were able to read and 82.3 per cent could both read and write. Of the employees of foreign birth who were of non-English-speaking races, only 51.8 per cent were able to speak English. The tendency toward acquiring citizenship among foreign-born male employees 21 years of age or over who had been in the United States five years or more was very small, only 32 per cent being naturalized and 11.4 per cent having taken out first papers. Only 1.5 per cent of foreign-born and 3.6 per cent of nativeborn wage-earning male members of the households were affiliated with labor organizations. The data collected in connection with the iron and steel industry are presented in detailed form according to the geographical distribution of the industry. The main divisions of the report are as follows: (1) General survey of the industry as a whole; (2) general survey of the industry in the East, in which is included a detailed study of the Pittsburg district and four representative iron and steel communities; (3) general survey of the industry in the Middle West, which also includes an intensive study of a representative community in that section; and (4) general survey of the industry in the South, which embraces an intensive study of the

II. SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT PACKING.

The slaughtering and meat-packing industry was studied in all of the principal centers of the Middle West and the Southwest. Detailed information was secured for 43,502 employees, and an intensive study was made of 1,039 households the heads of which were employed in the slaughtering and meat-packing establishments. It was found that 60.7 per cent of the total number of wage-earners in the industry were of foreign birth. The principal races of the old immigration were the Germans, with 3,338 reporting, and the Irish, with 1,899. Among the races of recent immigration the Poles, with 7,121, had by far the largest number reporting, followed by the Lithuanians, with 2,913, and the Bohemians and Moravians, with 1,777.

Of all employees, 24.8 per cent were of native birth and of native father and 14.5 per cent were native-born of foreign father. Only 5.1 per cent of the foreign-born male employees in the industry had had any experience in the same kind of work before coming to the United States, while 58.4 per cent had been farmers or farm laborers in their native countries. Only, 0.5 per cent of the foreign-born female employees were employed in this industry abroad, 82.8 per cent having been farmers or farm laborers. The average annual earnings of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied were $557; the average annual earnings of male heads of families were $578. The average annual income of families the heads of which were employed in the industry was $781, and of the total number of families studied 51.4 per cent depended entirely upon the husband for support, while 14.9 per cent derived their entire income from the earnings of husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 17.7 per cent from the earnings of husbands and the contributions of children.

A greater degree of congestion was found among the households the heads of which were of foreign birth than among those of native birth, due to the practice of the first-named class of households of taking boarders or lodgers in order to supplement the family income or to reduce the rent outlay per person. The average monthly rent payments per capita in households the heads of which were foreignborn was only $1.58, as contrasted with $2.19 among native households. In the foreign households there was also an average of 1.40 persons per room and 2.74 per sleeping room, as against 0.99 person per room and 2.21 persons per sleeping room in households the heads of which were native-born. of the households the heads of which were_foreign-born, 2.9 per cent used all rooms for sleeping purposes. The ownership of homes was more general among the foreign than among the native families, 46.1 per cent of the former and 17.3 per cent of the latter owning their homes.

Of the total number of wage-earners in the industry who were 20 years of age or over, 59.2 per cent were married. Of the foreign-born employees, 60.6 per cent were married, and of the native-born 56.9 per cent. Of the total number of foreign-born employees, 88.5 per cent were able to read some language, and 86.2 per cent were able to read and write. Only 52.1 per cent of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races were able to speak English. Of the foreign-born wage-earners 21 years of age or over who had been in the United States five years or more, 44.3 per cent were naturalized and 19.1 per cent had taken preliminary steps to become citizens by securing first papers. In the households studied only 2.5 per cent of the wage-earning males of foreign birth and 4.7 per cent of those of native birth were affiliated with labor organizations. The study of this industry is presented in detailed form as follows: (1) General survey of the industry as a whole; (2) general survey of the industry in Chicago; (3) general survey of the industry in Kansas City; and (4) general survey of the industry in South Omaha.

III. BITUMINOUS COAL MINING.

The operating forces of the bituminous coal-mining industry were studied in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Alabama, Virginia, and West Virginia. Detailed information was secured for 88,368 employees, and 2,371 households the heads of which were engaged in bituminous mining were intensively studied. Of the total number of employees, 61.9 per cent were of foreign birth, 9.5 per cent were of native birth but foreign father, and 28.5 per cent were native-born persons of native father. The principal races of old immigration were the Germans, with 2,699 reporting, and the English, with 2,497 reporting, while the Slovaks, with 11,318, the Poles, with 7,370, and the North Italians, with 6,666 were the races of recent immigration most largely represented. Only 20.7 per cent of the foreign-born employees had had any experience in bituminous coal mining before coming to this country, while 58 per cent had been farmers or farm laborers abroad. The average daily wage of employees 18 years of age or over was $2.19, and of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied the average annual earnings were $443. The average annual earnings of male heads of families who were employed in the industry were $451, and the average annual income of families the heads of which were working in the industry was $577. Slightly more than two-fifths, or 40.6 per cent, of the families studies derived their entire income from the earnings of husbands, while 35 per cent were supported by the earnings of husbands and the payments of boarders or lodgers, and 7.8 per cent by the earnings of husbands and the contributions of children.

About the same proportion of the employees 20 years of age or over in both nativity groups were married, the percentage in the case of the foreign-born being 67.3 and of the native-born 67.5. Only 82.9 per cent of the employees of foreign birth were able to read and 80.9 per cent able both to read and to write. Of the total number of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races, 61.2 per cent were able to speak English. of the foreign-born employees 21 years of age or over who had been in the United States five years or more only 26.8 per cent were naturalized, and 14.9 per cent were in possession of first papers. Of the native-born males in the households studied 55.8 per cent, and of the foreign-born 31.8 per cent, were members of labor organizations.

Only 5 per cent of the total number of native households kept boarders or lodgers, as contrasted with 43.8 per cent of those the heads of which were of foreign birth. Among the households the

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