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The foregoing data indicate a tendency on the part of wage-earners of foreign birth to acquire citizenship, which increases according to length of residence in this country. Of the total number who had a residence of five to nine years, only 6.2 per cent were fully naturalized, as compared with a degree of citizenship of 56.9 per cent of those with a period of residence of ten years or over. Of the total number of 68,942 employees for whom information was received, only onethird had become citizens, and only 16 per cent had taken the preliminary steps toward acquiring citizenship by taking out first papers. With the exception of the North Italian, no race of recent immigration, with a period of residence of from five to nine years, exhibited a proportion as high as 10 per cent of their number who had been fully naturalized. The Swedish, Irish, and Finnish exhibit the greatest interest in acquiring citizenship shortly after they are eligible. More than three-fourths of the Bohemians and Moravians, Danish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Scotch, Swedish, and Welsh who had been in the United States ten years or longer had been fully naturalized. The lack of political or civic interest of southern and eastern European wage-earners, on the other hand, is shown by the following percentages of fully naturalized representatives of some of the principal races with a residence of ten years or longer:

Race.

Per cent fully natu

ralized.

Race.

Per cent fully natu

ralized.

Croatian
Hebrew, Russian
Italian, North.
Italian, South..
Lithuanian.

Magyar..
Polish
Russian.
Slovak

26.8 48. 3 49.3 34. O 41.1

26.9 39.8 33.6 25. 3

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The extent to which members of non-English-speaking races are able to speak English affords one of the most important indications of the degree of their assimilation. In this connection, the following table is first submitted, which shows, by sex and race, the per cent of 246,673 employees of foreign birth who were able to speak English:

TABLE 68.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, how.

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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14 600

5
8,216

210
523

60
251
302

33 396 1,835

569 1,366

388

57.1 58. 7 80.0 54. 2 21.4 19.9 98. 3 73. 7 24. 5 21.2 45. 5 80. 2 12. 3 75.7 86.6

1.853 3,741

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Danish
Dutch
Finnish
Flemish.
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, other.
Herzegovinian.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Italian (not specified).
Japanese.
Lithuanian
Macedonian.
Magyar.
Mexican.
Montenegrin.
Norwegian
Polish
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian
Spanish..
Swedish.
Syrian
Turkish.

658 3,861

940 9, 231 9, 679 3,005

594 1, 450 3, 594

136 1,831 18,831 5. 440 3, 660 1, 359

199 13, 147 15, 990

133

147 9, 148

573
11,335

203
250

674
40.050
3, 483
1,857
6, 430

802 1,627 24, 463 4,716 1,921 5,309

980 325

672 4, 461

945 17, 447 9, 889 3,528

654 1, 701 3, 896

169 2, 227 20, 666 6.009 5, 026 1, 747

199 15,000 19, 731

134

147 10, 298

574
11,952

205
250

723
47, 628
5, 862
1,994
7,317

881 1,647 24,906 4,901 2,052 5, 463 1, 422

330

54.9 66.0 20.3 79. 4 50.9 19. 1 96.5 86. 1 50.3 45.6 68. 6 87.5 33.5 74.7 79. 5 14. 6 58.8 48.7 64.7 66.0 51.3 21.1 46. 4 59. 6 38. O 96.9 43.5 45. 2 33.3 43. 6 36.8 41.2 55. 6 51.7 19. 6 94.7 54. 6 22.5

39.1 25.8 (a)

54.9 65.0 20.6 67.5 50.3 19. 2 96.6 84. 2 48.3 40.8 64. 5 86.8 31. 5 75.0 81.1 14.6 56. 3 44. 4 64.2 60.0 48. 1 21.3 45. 2 59.0 38.0 96.5 39. 1 37.8 33. 3 43. 9 34.4 41.0 55.1 50.9 19.5 94.7 48.9 22. 7

1,150

1 617

7

22.3 (a)

24.0 (a)

49 7,578 2,379

137 887 79 20 443 185 131 154 442

5

91.8 15. 5 27.0 32.8 45. 9 10.1 20.0 26. 6 30. 3 19. 1 94. 2 36.4 40.0

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Of the total number of employees of foreign birth and of nonEnglish-speaking races in mines and manufacturing establishments, slightly more than one-half, or 53.2 per cent, were able to speak English. The smallest proportion with ability to speak English cxhibited by any race is shown by the Herzegovinians, with a percentage of only 14.6. Less than one-fifth of the Cuban and Spanish, and slightly more than one-fifth of the Bulgarian, Macedonian, and

, Turkish races were able to speak the language. The other races which fall below the percentage of 53.2 for the total foreign-born were the Syrian, Slovenian, Ruthenian, Russian, Roumanian, Portuguese, Polish, Montenegrin, Magyar, Lithuanian, South Italian, Greek, Flemish, Finnish, and Croatian. Of the races of southern and eastern Europe, the highest percentage of English-speaking ability is exhibited by the Bohemians and Moravians, followed in the order mentioned by the Hebrews, North Italians, and Slovaks. The French Canadians show a higher proportion of members who could speak English than any race from southern and eastern Europe. As regards the races from northern and western Europe, the Danes show 96.6 per cent, the Norwegians 96.5 per cent, the Swedes 94.7 per cent, the Germans 86.8 per cent, the Dutch 84.2 per cent, and the French 64.5 per cent with ability to speak English. With the exception of the Danish, the females of all races, and especially those of races of southern and eastern Europe, show a smaller proportion than the males who can speak the English language. Of the total number of females, only 38.6 per cent, as contrasted with 55.6 per cent of the males, could speak English. This situation is due to the greater segregation of the females as compared with the males, and their lack of contact with American life and institutions.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the proportion of persons in the households studied of non-English-speaking races who were 6 years of age or over and who were able to speak English: TABLE 69.—Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and

general nativity and race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSE!

SEHOLDS) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how

ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Native-born of foreign father, by race of
father:
Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian
Dutch.
Finnish
Flemish..
French..
German.
Hebrew
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Norwegian.
Polish..
Portuguese.
Ruthenian
Slovak.
Slovenian

Swedish.
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava.
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Danish.
Dutch.
Finnish
Flemish.
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese..
Lithuanian
Macedonian.
Magyar.
Mexican.
Norwegian.
Polish
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish.
Swedish.
Syrian.
Turkish..

Grand total..
Total native-born of foreign father..
Total foreign-born....

186 555 30 10 804 698 75 26 135 148 107

190 1,038

227 1,186

786 2,051

251
632

57
751

792 1,141

60 20 162 159 112

223 1,257 1,020 1, 226 1,078 3, 402

76 1,661

91 1,872

64

29
3,971

424
161

176
1,077

209 2,013 233

77 572 383 443

437 1,187

87 761 1,596 1,839 135

46 297 307 219

413 2, 295 1, 247 2,412 1,864 5, 453

77 2, 646

91 3,109 103

58
6,730

870
249

274
1,923

285 3,549

432

125
1,056

628
443

87.3
77.5
70.2

7.2
77.7
54.5
36.7
95.0
96. 3
88.1
82.1
67.3
86.4
23.8
83.3
68. 2
53.2
18.4
59.8
13. 2
45.5
21.9
100.0

52.9 -58.3 34.8 39. 2 52.6 16.3 61.2 78.5 29.9 96.0 80.2 1.4

58.1 61.1 33.3 20.0 58.3 26.9 18.7 92.3 83.7 37.8 62.6 65.3 79.2 11.9 67.9 42.0

35.6 (a) 35.9

74.8 69.8 57.5

7.4 67.9 44.0 26.7 93.5 90.6 63.8 72.6 66.3 83.1 21.7 75.7 57.1 46.6 18.2 50.9 13. 2 41.5 19.4 96.6 45.8 48.4 30.1 33.9 42.9 13.7 52.2 61.3 29.6 94.2 72.9 1.4

985

1,237

39

29 2,759 446 88 98 846

76 1,536 199

48 484 245

35.5 15.4 93.1 35.4 39.0 21.6 24.5 30.6

6.6 40.5 41.2 29.2 92.1 61.6

32, 666

24, 228

56,894

59.3

62.8

65.3

6,787 25,879

6,858
17,370

13, 645
43, 249

96.4
57.2

95.3
45.1

95.9 52.3

Upon referring to the totals in the foregoing table it is seen that more than 95 per cent of the persons of native birth but of foreign father were able to speak English, a greater proportion of males than of females being able to use the language. On the other hand, more than 52 per cent of the persons of foreign birth in the households studied were able to speak English, and a considerably larger proportion of males than of females had acquired an ability to speak the language. The reason for the more favorable showing of the males as compared with the females arises from the fact that a larger proportion of males than of females come into contact with American life and institutions through working and otherwise. As a rule, the immigrant women are practically segregated in immigrant colonies and have no association with American life or people except a little domestic service. Of the persons of foreign bírth of the old immigration, the French Canadians indicate the least progress in acquiring an ability to speak English. The Norwegians and Swedes show the largest proportion of persons with English-speaking ability, with the Germans next in order. Of the races of recent immigration, the Turks show the smallest proportion, or only 1.4 per cent, of their total number able to speak English. The Bulgarians, Greeks, Japanese, Mexicans, and Servians also exhibit less than one-fourth of their number with English-speaking ability. Of the southern and eastern Europeans, the highest degree of English-speaking ability is indicated by the Armenians, Bohemians and Moravians, Hebrews, and Syrians. Slightly less than one-half of the Croatians, South Italians, Poles, Portuguese, and Ruthenians are able to speak English. The Brava and Finns show the least advancement in acquiring an ability to speak English. A considerably greater proportion of males than of females of the Flemish, North and South Italian, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Ruthenian, Slovenian, and Slovak races can speak English.

The table and chart next presented exhibit the advancement in ability tospeak English made by foreign-born members of non-Englishspeaking races after designated periods of residence in the United States. They show the proportion of 246,673 employees of foreign birth, by sex, years in the United States, and race, who could speak English.

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