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The tendency toward a permanent residence in the United States on the part of the various foreign-born races may be readily seen by a study of the foregoing table, which shows that of the 68,942 foreignborn male employees concerning whom information was obtained, exactly one-third are fully naturalized, and that an additional 16 per cent have secured first papers. In other words, a fraction less than 50 per cent of these foreign-born employees have either become full citizens or intend to become such. It is not to be supposed that the proportions of the more recent immigrant races manifesting an interest in American citizenship are as large as those of the older immigrants, and if considered as a whole such is not the case, although it will be noted that there are a few instances in which the proportions of the more recent exceed those of the older immigrant races. There fore, on account of the difference in the length of time these various races have been coming to the United States,

a comparison of the older with the more recent immigrants is hardly fair. For this reason it is considered best to separate the races into two groups, one including all races of older immigration and the other all races of more recent immigration. If this be done it will be seen that about seven-tenths

of the older, as compared with about three-tenths of the more recent, ! have either become fully naturalized or have declared their intent to

become so. Although one race may show a much larger proportion fully naturalized than some other, this other race may, and in many instances does, show a much larger proportion with first papers only. Therefore the only natural conclusion to be drawn is that the one with the largest proportion fully naturalized was quicker to appre ciate the advantages to be gained by becoming citizens than the other. This is perhaps better illustrated by the recent immigrants than by the older. For instance, the Italians, not specified, show 35 per cent fully naturalized and only 10 per cent additional with only first papers, while the Austrians, race not specified, show 22.1 per cent fully naturalized, but an additional 31 per cent with only first papers. Thus it will be seen that the Austrians have in reality manifested greater interest in American citizenship than have the Italians. For this reason it is considered best to combine the proportion of each race fully naturalized with the additional proportion with only first papers. By such a combination it will be seen that the interest in acquiring citizenship manifested by the more recent immigrant races ranges as follows: Hebrew (other than Russian).... 61. 6 | Magyars....

26.8 Hebrew, Russian...

Slovaks.

22.8 Austrian (race not specified).

Croatians

22.5 Armenians.

49. 2 Roumanians. Italians, North 45.8 Syrians.

20.7 Italians (not specified). 45.0 Greeks.

20,2 Bulgarians..

Ruthenians.

19.9 Slovenians.

35. 8 Spaniards.. Poles....

Servians..

12. S Lithuanians. 32. 5 Cubans..

12. 1 Italians, South..

Portuguese.

5.5 Russians...

28.0 As contrasted with the above, the proportions next submitted

57. 2
53. 1

21.9

36. 8

13.6

33. 1

30.1

Swedes..
92. 3 | Scotch..

79. 1 Welsh...

87.0 Belgians (race not specified). 76. 5 Danes.. 86. 8 French..

66. 6 Germans.

85. 7 Canadians (other than French). 56.7 Norwegians.. 85. 6 Swiss....

49. 3 Irish. 82. 6 Canadians, French.

31. 5 English. 80. 6 Mexicans..

10. O Dutch....

79.9 All races represented by not less than 40 male employees are shown in the preceding groups, with the exception of the Bohemians and Moravians and Finns, and as between these two it will be noted that of the former 48.5 per cent are fully naturalized and an additional 27.7 per cent have only first papers, as compared with 36.5 and 24.7 per cent, respectively, of the latter. In other words, over three-fourths of the Bohemians and Moravians and over six-tenths of the Finns have either become or intend to become citizens of the United States.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the present political condition of foreign-born males in the households studied who had been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at the time of their arrival in this country: TABLE 66.- Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United

States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

Number

Number
Race of individual.

reporting
Having

Having
complete Fully nat-
data.
first papers

first papers uralized. only.

only.

Per cent

Fully nat-
uralized.

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Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava..
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Danish.
Dutch
English.
Finnish.
Flemish
French
German
Greek.
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Macedonian.
Magyar.
Mexican
Norwegian.
Polish..
Portuguese.
Roumanian.
Russian..
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian.
Spanish..
Swedish
Syrian.
Turkish.
Welsh..

67 198 11 17 210 345 15

9 54 223 71 42 83 503 109 373 254 428 952 553

1 512 30

17 1,216 113 24 48 278 73 35 672 80 18 271 60 11 50

57 67 3 6 42 145 40 24 34 329

4 90 201 141 172 121

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27.1

19.4
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77.8
65.0
56.3
57. 1
41.0
65. 4

3,7
24. 1
79. 1
32.9
18.1

21.9 (a) 15.0

.0
(a)

21.6
5.3

.0
8.3
14. 7
68.5

.0 17.1

30.0 (a)

84.9

20.0 (a)

84.0

20.9

23. 2 (0) (a)

5.7

19. 1 (a) (a)

14. 8 15.7 23.9 23.8 18.1 14.1

6.4 29.5

7.1 22.0

9.9

11.8 (a)

19.3

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13.9

.9 4. 2 8.3 8.3 9.6 5. 7 14. 7

18.8 (a)

11.1

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10.0

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Total..

8,026
2,513

1, 159
o Not computed, owing to small number involved.
48296°-VOL 19-11-13

Upon referring to the totals in the preceding table, it is seen that of the total number of 8,026 foreign-born males only 31.3 per cent had attained to full citizenship, and only 14.4 per cent had taken the preliminary steps toward acquiring citizenship by securing their first papers. A hard and fast comparison between the members of the races of the new and old immigration as to the degree of citizenship obtaining among them is not altogether fair unless the length of residence of each class of immigrants be taken into account, but after making due allowance for this favorable factor in the case of the races of old immigration it is evident that they evince a much greater interest in political and civic affairs than the southern and eastern European races which have come to the United States during recent years. The degree of citizenship obtaining among the representative races of old immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe is as follows:

Fully naturalized.

Dutch....
English.
German.
Irish..

Per cent.

77. 8 Scotch. 65. 0 Swedish. 65. 4 Welsh.. 79. 1

Per cent.

79. 1 84. 9 84.0

Per cent.

21. 6 5.3 8.3 14. 7 17. 1 30.0 20.0

By way of contrast, the proportion of members of representative races of recent immigration who have become fully naturalized is given below:

Fully naturalized.

Per cent. Canadian, Frenco...

27. 1 Polish... Croatian..

19. 4 | Portuguese. Greek..

3. 7 Russian.. Hebrew.

24. 1 Ruthenian. Italian, North.

32. 9 Slovak. Italian, South.

18. 1 Slovenian. Lithuanian.

21. 9 Syrian.... Magyar.....

15. O Among the older immigrants, the Swedes, Welsh, and Irish have a somewhat higher proportion of citizens, although each race of this class has more than three-fifths of their number who transferred their citizenship to the United States. Among the southern and eastern Europeans the Slovenians and North Italians show a much higher percentage of citizenship than the other races, while the Greeks, Portuguese, and Russians appear at the other extreme. The three last-named races also give evidence of relatively small interest in acquiring citizenship, the percentage of those who have taken out first papers being comparatively small. Of the recent immigrant races of representative numbers, the Hebrews, North Italians, Magyars, Croatians, Slovenians, Slovaks, and Poles, in the order named, display the greatest tendency toward seeking first papers of citizenThe table which immediately follows and the accompanying chart show, by years in the United States and race, the present political condition of 68,942 foreign-born male industrial workers who were 21 years of age or over at the time of their arrival in this country: TABLE 67.Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of

age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

In United States 5 to 9

years.

In United States 10

years or over.

In United States 5

years or over.

Race.

Per cent.
Per cent.

Per cent.
Num-
Num-

Num-
ber re-
ber re-

ber re-
porting

porting

Having com

porting Fully

Having com- Fully

Having first

first

Fully com

first plete natuplete natu

plete natudata. ralized. papers

data. ralized.

papers
data. ralized.

papers
only.
only.

only.

16.9
8.7

24.1

6.5

83 553 340

91 1, 455 665

57 123 980 634

279
1,367

336
559
176

558
2, 520
2, 483
1, 656
2,193

88 706 1, 199

389 448 296 194

408 3, 476

397

372 6, 492

85

Armenian
Bohernian and Moravian
Canadian, French
Canadian, Other.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Danish
Dutch.
English
Finnish
French
German
Greek
Hebrew, Russian
Hebrew, Other.
Irish
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian
Magyar..
Norwegian.
Polish
Portuguese
Roumanian
Russian
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian.
Spanish.
Swedish
Syrian.
Welsh.

331 i

8.8 3. 2 3. 3 14.0

8.9 13.3 18.1

9.0 12.9 2.1 7.5 10.2 19.4 10.5 5.8 8.2 3.3 6.0 2. 7 1.4 6.4 4.3 1.0 10.0 2.1 2. 2 4.6 2.5 22.5

5.4 12.8

46.5

3.8 11.0 11.4

6 45. 6 31.7 42. 4 30.1 31.5 40.2 12.8 44. 4 42.0 30.8 21.5 14.1 10.3 15.2 59.0 11.3

1.6 10.9 11.4 10.3 32.1 6.4 8.6 22. 6

2. 2 57.3 10.8 46.2

38.6 79.7 27.7 49.6 26.8 24. 3 77.3 64.7 67.0 65.7 64.8 81.5 25.9 48.3 54.2 80.0 49.3 34.0 41.1 26.9 77.5 39.8

6.6 22. 2 33.6 20.3 76.9 14. 6 25. 3 35. 3 22. 2 87.6 21.4 76.4

18.2 171
13. O 1, 259

9.8 1,539
15. 7 480
21.0 1,903

6.1 961 17.5 251 27.0 531 20.6

4,456 16.1 1,031 21.2 651 11.0 7,859 15.3 421 17.8 890 14.5 403

8. 8 3, 449 18.9 4,069 14.8 3,811 13.1 2, 727 17.9 3,200 17.1 270 17.5 10,923

3. 5 564 27.8 128 15.4

1,388 12. 5 161 10.9

1,088 14. 6 236 13.3 7, 433 19.1 1,391 6.7 647 8.0

2,359 7.1 116 12.2 729

227 2,891 1,549 1,328 1,071 1,007

187 4,808 198

18 512

64 879

48 3,185

439

239 1,865

42 690

28. 1 48.5 23. O 41.9 8.8 9.8 62.9 51.8 55. 2 36.5 40.9 69.6

6.9 22. 7 35.0 70.2 25. 3 15. 7 21.1 10.8 55. 6 19.0 3. 2 8.6 15.1

8.7 64. 1

4.7 12.1 14.3

9.7 73.9 11.2 73.0

21.1 27.7

8.5 14. 8 13.7

2.3 23.9 28.1 25. 4 24.7 25.7 16.1 13.3 34. 5 26. 6 12.4 20.5 14.4 11.4 16.0 30.0 14.1

2.3 13. 3 12.9 11.2 15.0

8.1 10.7 21.5

3.9 18.4

9. 5 14.0

83

6, 115

366 110 876

97 209

188
4, 248

952
408

494

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18.1 36,800

14.2 68, 942

56.9

33.3

16.0

Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States 5 to 9 years, and who were 21 years of age or over at the time

of coming, by race.

RACE

20

40

60

80

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BOHEMIAN NOMORAVIAN
CROATIAN
CUBAN
ENGLISH
FINNISH
GERMAN
HEBREW, RUSSIAN
IRISH
ITALIAN, NORTH
ITALIAN, SOUTH
LITHUANIAN
MAGYAR
POLISH
RUSSIAN
SLOVAK
SLOVENIAN
TOTAL

= FULLY NATURALIZED

= HAVING FIRST PAPERS

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