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TABLE 58.-Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and

write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual-Continued.

Number reporting com

plete data.

Per cent who read.

Per cent who read and

write.

General nativity and race

of individual.

Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.

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Upon referring to the foregoing table it is at once evident that a considerably higher degree of literacy prevails among the native-born wage-earners than among those of foreign birth. Of the total number of persons both male and female who were born in this country 98.2 per cent were able to read and 98 per cent able to read and write, as contrasted with only 77.5 per cent of persons of foreign birth with ability to read and 74.8 per cent who were able both to read and write. About the same proportions of males and females of native birth, but a somewhat smaller proportion of foreign-born women than of men, were able to read and to read and write. The nativeborn negro shows a higher degree of illiteracy than the wage-earners of foreign birth, while the industrial workers of native birth and of native father, white, show only a very slight advancement in literacy over those of native birth but of foreign father. Among the representatives of races of foreign birth only 62 per cent of the Croatian males and 56.2 per cent of the females, 79.8 per cent of Greek males and 41.2 per cent of the females, 61.9 per cent of the South Italian males and 45.6 per cent of the females, 61.8 per cent of the Portuguese males and 57.6 per cent of the females, 65.8 per cent of the Ruthenian males and 54.4 per cent of the females, 56.3 per cent of the Servian males and 42.9 per cent of the females, and only 4.5 per cent of the The following table shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the proportion of foreign-born persons in the households studied who were able to read and who were able both to read and write:

TABLE 59.- Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Armenian...
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava.
Bulgarian..
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other..
Croatian..
Cuban..
Danish,
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
Flemish.
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Japanese..
Lithuanian.
Macedonian
Magyar.
Mexican
Norwegian.
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian.
Russian.
Ruthenian
Scotch..
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian.
Spanish
Swedish
Syrian..
Turkish
Welsh..

414 1,147

86 756 1,538

56 1,761 128

45
297
1,120

301
208

383
2, 225
1.229
2, 206
1,574
1,785
5, 187

77 2,587

91 2,977 102

58
6,522

833
241

262
1,881

380

278 3, 440

423

108 1,051

613 443 221

93.8 96.7 79.3 (a) 83.5 98.0 62.4 98. 2 100.0 96.3 96.0 97.9 89.8 92. 4 98.0 78.4 86. 2 92.8 87.7 59.7

90.2 98.0 77.4 73.5 94.7 (a) 56.7 93.5 (a) 100.0

98.0 100.0 95.4 88.6 95.7 71.6 86.5 97.0 80.9 50.7 100.0 60.4 69.7 87.5 44.4 100.0 74. 7 58.7 76.0 57.3 57.8 100.0 53.6 82.7 88.7 96.3 98.5 69.5

4.4 96.0

84.4 99.4 73.1 87.0 90.8 100.0

62.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 94.5 97.5 88.0 86.0 96.8 77.2 88.6 99. 2 84.2 61.6 100.0

63.7 (a) 89.9

59.1 (a)

77.4 59.0 70.7 61.4 64.2 100.0 50. 84.1 93. 3 100.0 100.0 71.2

7.1 100.0

90.2 97.5 77.4 72.7 92.4 (a) 55.8 93.5 (a) 100.0 97.6 97.3 93. 8 87.9 95.5 71.2 84.6 97.0 80.4 49.8 100.0 47.9 69.7 86.9 44. 4 100.0 68.8 58. 2 75.5 57.3 56.0 100.0 52.7 80.0 88.7 96.3 98.5 67.1

4.4 96. O

(a).

83.3 98.9 73.1 87.0 90.8 100.0

60.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 94.5 97.5 84.0 85.0 95.3 77.2 86.4 99. 2 83.1 60.7 100.0

54.1 (a) 88.8 59.1 (a) 70.5 57.6 68.3 57.1 61.7 100.0 50.0 82. 4 91.3 100.0 100.0 68.9

7.1 100.0

93.1 95.3

79.3 (a)

80.5 98.0 58.9 98. 2 100.0 95. 2 96.0 93.8 89.0 90.3 96.6 78.4 85.1 91.6 87.2

57.0 (a)

61.0

71.2

92.0 49.3 100.0 80.2 60.8

91.1 47.9 97.9 73. 2 59.0

76.2 61.5 99. 2 (a) 78.4 95.5 96.3 99.6 77.8

69.0 55.6

98.8 (a)

73.9 93. 2 96.3 99.5 75.9

95. 6

94.5

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A comparison of the totals in each period of residence shows a considerable degree of advancement both in ability to read and to read and write corresponding to length of residence in the United States. Of those who had been in this country under five years, 71 per cent could read and 68.6 per cent could read and write, as compared with 77.3 per cent with ability to read and 74.4 per cent with ability to read and write of those with a residence of five to nine years, and 84.5 per cent who could read and 81.5 per cent who could both read and write of those who had been in the United States ten years or longer.

The table which immediately follows affords a comparison of the present degree of literacy among younger and older immigrants according to their age at the time of arrival in this country. It shows, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who were able to read and the per cent able to both read and write:

TABLE 60.- Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over wno read and per cent

who read and urite, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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98.6
98.3

92.3
(a)

93. 2 100.0 83. 3 94. 1 100.0 98.3 98.4 98. 1 89.8 98.8 98.9 87.7 95.5 97.5 95.1 77.7

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava..
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.
Croatian..
Cuban..
Danish
Dutch.
English
Finnish.
Flemish,
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew
Irish..
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese...
Lithuanian
Macedonian
Magyar..
Mexican..
Norwegian.
Polish
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Scotch..
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian.
Spanish.
Swedish.
Syrian..
Turkish
Welsh...

92.1 100.0 80.0 94. 1 100.0 97.5 98. 4 98.1 89.8 97.6 97.5 87.7 95.3 97.0 94.7 76.7

414 1,147

86 756 1,538

56 1,761 128

45
297
1, 120

301
208

383
2, 225
1, 229
2, 206
1,574
1, 785
5, 187

77 2,587

91 2,977 102

58
6,522

833
241

262
1,881

380

278 3, 440

423

108 1,051

613 443 221

88.2 97.1 74.0 73.9 82.1 96.9 58.1 97.9 100.0 95.5 95.4 98.0 91.8 86.7 97.0 72.1 84. 4 92.4 82. 2 51.7 100.0 62.9 69. 2 88.4 51.9 100.0 75.1 50.2 74.5 58.8 58.8 99.6 52. 2 80.2 93.5 96.3 99.8 69.3

4.5 93.5

87.6 95.7 74.0 73.1 78.9 96.9 56.5 97.9 100.0 94.3 25. 3 95. 2 89.9 85.3 95.8 71.8 82.2 91.2 81.5 50. 4 100.0 51.2 69. 2 87.6 51.9 97.9 6S, O 48.9 73. 6 56.4 55. 2 99.6 51.5 76.8 91.7 96.3 99.7 67.5

4.5 92.0

85.7

83.5

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93.4 48.0 100.0 92.8 86. 3 100.0 94.7 80.5 99. 2 83. 3 89.6 89.5 100.0 98.6

80.9 (a)

100.0

92. 44. 100.0 90.9 84.9 100.0 94.7 79.3 98. 4 83.3 88.5 89.5 100.0 98.6

76.5 (a) 100.0

Total..

45,042

91.7

74.9

90.7

71.8

A study of the foregoing table, which reveals returns from 45,042 foreign-born persons who were 10 years of age or over, shows a higher degree of literacy at the present time among those who were under 14 years of age when they arrived in the United States as compared with those who were 14 years of age or older. Of those who were less than 14 years old when they came to this country, 91.7 per cent can now read and 90.7 per cent can now both read and write. On the other hand, of those who were 14 or over 14 years of age, only 74.9 per cent can read and 71.8 per cent can both read and write at the present time. The Flemish, Mexican, Scotch, Slovenian, and Swedish races, of all others, show a greater proportion among those 14 years of age or over who can read or read and write, but in the case of these races the difference between the two age groups is

very small. The Norwegians alone, without regard to age, are all able to read and to write.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table following shows, by sex, age groups, and general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of persons in the households studied who were single, married, or widowed.

Table 61.Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex, age groups, and general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of foreign

father, by race of
father:
Bohemian and

Moravian.
Canadian, French.
Dutch.
English.
German.
Irish.
Polish.

Swedish.
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Bohemian and

Moravian..
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Dutch..
English.
Finnish.
Flemish.
French..
German.
Greek.
Ilebrew
Irish.
Italian, North..
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Macedonian
Magyar..
Mexican..
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian..
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Servian..
Slovak.
Slovenian
Swedish.
Syrian.
Turkish.
Welsh..

156) .6 96.2 3.2 57111.6 86.71 1.8

30 3.3 93.3 3.3 697 24. 474. 2 1.4 221 2.3 89.1 8.6 614 18.676, 64.8 80 2.5 95.0 2.5 1,000 20.478. 6 1.0

9(a)| (a) (a) 46 8.7 89.1 2.2 60 .0 96.7 3.3 156 6.4 91.0 2.6 181 1.7 91.2 7.2 519 17. 179.2 3.6

19 .0 94.7 5.3 147 3. 195.9 31 .0 96.8 3.2 102 14.783. 3 2.0 66 .0 95.5 4.5 178 13. 5 $4.8 1.7 443 1.8l 92.3 5.9 1,135 14. 482.71 2.9

.0 98. 1 1.9 810 56. 2 13. 3 .5 117 .0 94.9 5.1 901 16.9 82.0! 1.1 334 2.1/ 85.0.12. 9 774 15. 278.7 6.1 144 4.9 91.0 4.2 921 20. 378. 41 1.3 333 1.5 93.1 5.4 2,742 28.0 70.9 1.1 107| 2.8 94.4 | 2.8 1,497 38. 660.8 .6

2 (2) (a) (a) 86 46.5 53.5 .0 181 1.7 93.9 4.4 1,602 21. 977.0 1.1

11 9.1 81.8 9.1 58 29.3 69.0 1.7 371 3.0 92.5 4.6 3,497 25. 7 73, 57

.0 96.41 3.6 330 13. O'86.1 .9 10 .0 100.0 .0 114 21. 576. 41 2.1 9(a)(a)(a) 160 25. 673. 81 88 4.5 89.8 5.7 934 23.3 75. & .9 65 1.595. 4 3. 1 172 23. 875. 01 1.2

9(a)()(a) 189 36. 2 62.2 1.6 236 3.0 91.5 5.5 1,774 11.7 87.4 .9

22 .0 100.0 .0 213 8.5 91.5 .0 209 .0 95. 2 4.81

519 12.0 85. 6 2. 4 28 3.6 96.4 .0

289 36.3 61. 6 2.1 7(a)(a)

(a)

405 59.5 10. 0.5 58 .0 94.8 5.2

105 13.3 83. 8 2.9

Grand total.....

.311,374 9.2 89.8 1.1 4,387 2.0 92.3 5. 7 27, 101 25. 6. 72.9 1.5

Total native-born of

foreign father... Total native-born. Total foreign-born...

154 37.0 63.0 .0 261 3.11 95.0 1.9 431 38.1 61.3 .7 236 2.1) 85.3 2.5 185 18.6 50.8 .5 238 10.5 84.9 4.6 519 35.6 63. 6 .8 401 4.2 94.8 1.0 15 20.0 80.0 .0 22 4.5 95.5 .0 23 39.1 60.9| .0 73 1.4 95.9 2.7 124 51.6 48. 4 .0 241 11. 1 $6.1 2.9 53 9.4 90.6 0 75 .0 100.0 .0 24 50.0 50.0 .0 47 6.4 91.5 2.1 44 45.5 54.5 .0 68 5.9 94.1 .0 231 53.2 46.3

461 6.9 91.8 1.3 532 78. 4 21. 4

254 21.7| 77.6 .8 370 34. 1 65.7 3 414 6.3 33.0 .7 124 53. 246.8 .0 316 14.2 81.5 1.3

343 15.2 54.5 .3 431 5.8 93.1 1.2 1.264 52.3 47.3 .4 1,145 8.990.6 .5 703 63.3 36.6 .1 687 18.9 80.3 .7

57 68.4 31.6 .0 27 3.7 96.3 0 650 1.0 55. 8 2 771 8.0 90.8 1.2

18 55. 6| 44. 4 0 29 20.7) 79.3 0 1,587 17.3 52.6 1 1,539 9.0 90.5 .5 131 29.1 70.9 .0 141 2.8 96.5.7 67 10.3 59.7 .0 67 6.0 89.6 4.5 75 10.0 58.7 1.3 76 14.5 85.5 .0 432 11.7 58.3 .0 414 8.2 91.1 .7

51 66.7 33.3 .0 56 10.7 89.3 .0 11651.3 44.8 9 63 7.990.5 1.6 651 27.0 73.0 0 887 2.8 96.8 .3 89 18.0 82.0 .0 102 2.0 98.0 .0 89 50.6 49.4 .0 251 8.4 90.4 1.2 166 56.0 42.8 1.2 95 11.6 84.2 4.2 283 79.9 20.1 .0 115 13.0 85.2 1.7 16 75.0 25. O .0 31 6.5 93.5 .0

11,340 51.2 48.5

989 81.2 18.3 1,551 68.5 31.1 9, 789 48.5 51.3

.5 491 18.9 79.2 1.8 194 3.1 92.8 4.1 1,674 53.9' 44. 8 1.3

4 1,555 12.4 86.2 1.4 559 2. 1 93.2 4.7 3,265 37.3 61.2 1.5 .310,219 8.8 90.2 1.1 3,828 1.9 92.2 5.9 23, 836, 24.0 74.5 1.5

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