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The table shows an average of 2.46 persons per sleeping room in the 17,141 households investigated, there being an average of 2.53 persons per sleeping room in the households the heads of which were foreign-born, 2.25 in those the heads of which were native-born negroes, 1.99 in those the heads of which were native-born of foreign father, and 1.84 in those the heads of which were native-born whites of native father.

In the households the heads of which are of the several foreignborn races, it is seen that in those the heads of which are Bulgarians, Mexicans, Macedonians, Croatians, and Roumanians the average number of persons per sleeping room is over 3, and in the households the heads of which are of each other race, except Armenian, Danish, English, French, Irish, Syrian, and Turkish, the average number is over 2; the average number in the households the heads of which are of each of the races excepted above being over 1. In the households the heads of which were native-born of foreign father, the average number of persons per sleeping room ranges from 2.57, in those the head of which were native-born of Polish parentage, to 1.81 in those the heads of which were native-born of English parentage.

That section of the table which gives the per cent of households having each specified number of persons per sleeping room shows 77 per cent of the 17,141 households as having 2 or more, 36.9 per cent as having 3 or more, 14.6 per cent as having 4 or more, 5.6 per cent as having 5 or more, and 2.2 per cent as having 6 or more persons per sleeping room. Of the households the heads of which are of each nativity group, it is seen that those the heads of which were foreign-born show the largest proportion having each specified number of persons per sleeping room, except 5 or more or 6 or more, where those the heads of which were native-born negroes show the largest proportion. The households the heads of which were nativeborn whites of native father show the smallest proportion having each specified number of persons per sleeping room, except 4 or more, where those the heads of which were native-born of foreign father show the smallest proportion. Of the households the heads of which are of the several foreign races, those the heads of which are Croatians, Finns, Mexicans, Russians, Slovaks, and Slovenians are the only ones 5 per cent of which have 6 or more persons per sleeping room; and less than 10 per cent of the households the heads of which are of each race, except Bulgarian, Croatian, Finnish, Mexican, Roumanian, and Slovak, have 5 or more persons per sleeping room. The households the heads of which are of the races excepted in the statement immediately preceding are the only ones 25 per cent of which have 4 or more persons per sleeping room, and also the only ones, with the addition of those the heads of which are Magyars, Russians, and Ruthenians, 50 per cent of which have 3 or more persons per sleeping room. The proportion of households which have 2 or more persons per sleeping room ranges from 97.6 per cent of those the heads of which are Mexicans, to 35 per cent of those the heads of which are Danish.

The effect of crowding within the households upon the living and sleeping arrangements is exhibited in the next table, which shows,

by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms: Table 57.–Number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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120 501

30 139 506 617 43 20 144 461 142

85 146 948 226 749 731

653 1, 530

3

.0 1. 4

.0 63.3

.0 3.9 .0 .0 .0 .0 3. 5 .0

Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro.
Native-born of foreign father,
by race of father:
Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.
Dutch.
English..
German.
Irish.

Polish.
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava..
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian..
Cuban.
Danish
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
Flemish
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese.
Lithuanian.
Macedonian
Magyar..
Mexican.
Norwegian.
Polish
Portuguese
Roumanian.
Russian..
Ruthenian.
Scotch..
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish.
Swedish,
Syrian..
Turkish
Welsh..

Grand total...

5

2.7

4 10 37 35 01

10 106

0334 0 272

4.83 4. 35 3. SO 2. 41 4. 99 4.01 4. 70 5. 60 5. 84 5. 17 3. 60 4. 27 4. 45 5. 11 4. 13 3. 94 5. 37 3. 89 3. 84 (a) 4.08 2. 25 3. 75 2. 86 6. 04 3.82 4. 84 4. 84 3.35 3. 61 5. 02 4. 88 3. 62 4.06 5. 15 5.34 4. 19 6. 28 5. 46

3 46 59 20 36 109 115 0216 6 76 272 699

2 353

2 457 22

425

2. 53
2. 03
1. 67
1.90
2.81
2. 40
2. 16
2. 50
2. 43
2. 39
1. 68
2. 06
2. 15
2. 41
2. 88
2. 06
2. 75
2. 13
2. 16
(a)
2. 40
1.92
2. 20
1. 43
2. 58
2. 19
2.80
3. 35
2.08
2. 35
2. 48
3. 33
2.02
2. 19
2.39
2. 43
2.51
4. 58
2. 49

1.1 16.4 4.7

.1 1.5 6.9 (a)

4.9
(a)

6. 5
2. 4

.0
7.4

20.0
18. 2
33. 3
24.5
22. 1
46.8
9.3

.0
2.1
10.0
41.5
23.5
24.7
11.5
50.9
28.8
10.4
41.7
45. 7
(a)
44.6
(a)
50.2
52.4

.0 43. 4 30.6 54.5 64.0 61.6 10.4 56.5 47.8 31.6 2.6 2.9 45.5 34.0 6.4

42.5 42.7 30.0

9.4 45. 3 33.7 30. 2

5.0 10. 4 33. 4 27.5 35. 3 32. 2 34.0 27.9 44.6 37.2 41.7 27.8 (a)

32,1 (a) 30.0 45. 2 11.5 31.6 44.4 26.0 25. 3 18, 3 35. 6 24.6 31.7 37.9 28.2 28. 7 40.0 62.0 22.3

791

39

9 59 1

156

.0

12 911 42

26 2, 106 232 77 75 531 135

69 1.319

174

39 485 165 50 94

5 64 1 4 75 18

915 71 42 48 327 14 39 630 55

254

1 273 19

3 666 103 20 19 97 48 17 418 66 11 139 66 31 21

9.1 6.7 12. 1

.7 5.8 5. 7 10.3

.0 .0 3.6

.0 .0

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A small proportion of the households the heads of which were foreign-born, as can be seen from the preceding table, use all rooms for sleeping purposes, this tendency being especially noticeable in the case of the Bulgarian households, 63.3 per cent of which use all rooms for sleeping purposes. Of the Ruthenian households 12.1 per cent, 10.3 per cent of the Slovenian, and 16.4 per cent of the Greek households sleep in all rooms.

Of the total number of households the heads of which were foreign-born, 35.1 per cent use all except one room for sleeping quarters, this practice being much more prevalent among the households of Southern and Eastern Europeans than among those of the races from Great Britain and Northern Europe. Of the total native-born, less than 1 per cent of the households use all rooms for sleeping purposes, and only 10.2 per cent sleep in all except one room. Practically the same situation exists among the households the heads of which were immigrants from Great Britain and Northern Europe as that shown for the households the heads of which were of native birth.

CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition—Text Tables 58 to 61 and General Tables 38 to 46).

LITERACY.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of persons in the households studied 10 years of age or over who were able to read and the per cent who were able to both read and write: TABLE 58.—Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

[graphic]

Native-born of native father:
White..

2,019 2,126 4,145 99.5 99.2 99.3 Negro...

213

191 404 69.5 63.4 66. 6 Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: Bohemian and Moravian. 355

366 721 99.7

99.7 99.7 Canadian, French... 308

340 648 99. 4 96.8 98.0 Croatian.

51

105 100.0 94. 4 97.1 Dutch

148

172 320 100.0 100.0 100.0 English.

255

287 542 99.6 100.0 99.8 Finnish.

52

50 102 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flemish

34

28 62 100.0 100.0 100.0 French

34

54 88 97.1 96.3 96.6 German

874

862 1,736 99.5 99.7 99.6 Hebrew

186
172 358 100.0

98.8 99.4 Irish.

1,012 1,046 2,058 99.9 99.5 99.7 Italian, North.

139

127 266 99.3 98. 4 98.9 Italian, South

162

198 360 92.6 93.4 93. 1 Lithuanian

153

288 99.3 98.7 99.0 Magyar.

101

200 97.0 98.0 97.5 Norwegian...

30

34 64 100.0 100.0 100.0 Polish.

632

641 1,273 98.6 98. 3 98.4 Portuguese

58

56 114 100.0 98. 2 99.1 Ruthenian.

148

163 311 99.3 95. 1 95.1 Scotch

82

95 177 100.0 100.0 100.0 Slovak

370

351 721 98.4 98.0 98. 2 Slovenian..

52

52 104 100.0 100.0 100.0 Swedish.

338 367

705
100.0

99.7 99.9 Welsh..

86

83 169 97.7 100.0 98.8
Foreign-born:
Armenicn..

240
174 414 96.3

81.6 90.1 Bohemian and Moravian. 611

536 1,147 98.5 96.1 97.4 Brava.

57

29 86 84. 2 62. 1 76.7 Bulgarian..

747
9 756 74.0

66.7 73.9 Canadian, French

759

779 1,538 85. 2 87.8 86.5 Canadian, Other.

4

52 56 (a) 98.1 98. 2 Croatian..

1,092 669 1,761 62.0 56.2. 59.8 Cuban.

55

73 128 98. 2 95. 9 96.9 Danish.

20

25 45 100.0 100.0 100.0 Dutch

162

135 297 98.1 94.8 96.6 English

611 509 1,120 97.1 95. 3 96.3 Finnish.. 157 144

97.9 98.0 Flemish. 108 100 208 94.4 88.0

91.3 a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

99.7 97.7 94.3 100.0

99.8 100.0 100.0 96.6 99.6 99.4 99.6 98.5 92.5 98.6 97.5 100.0 98. 2 99.1 97.1 100.0

98. 2 100.0 99.9 98.8

81.0 94.8 62. 1 55.6 85.4 98.1 52.8. 95.9 100.0 93.3 95.1 95.1 87.0

89.6 96.3 76.7 73.1 84.2 98.2 58.1 96.9 100.0 95. 6 96.2 95.7 89.9

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