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each 100 rooms the foreign-born households have 138 persons, those the heads of which were native-born of foreign father 85 persons, and those the heads of which were native-born white persons of native father 77 persons. In the case of the sleeping rooms, the households the heads of which were foreign-born show 253 for each 100 sleeping rooms, those the heads of which were native-born of foreign father 190, and those native-born of native father 184 persons for each 100 sleeping rooms. Among the households the heads of which were native-born of foreign father the greatest degree of congestion is indicated by the Polish, Bohemian and Moravian, French Canadian, and Dutch races. Among the households the heads of which were foreign-born the races of recent immigration from eastern and southern Europe as a general rule show a higher average number of persons per room and per sleeping room than the households the heads of which were of old immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe. The most crowded conditions in the households are shown by the Bohemian and Moravian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Macedonian, and Roumanian races. The contrast between the races of the old and the new immigration may be more sharply set forth by a division of the several races on the basis of the average number of persons per room and per sleeping room, which is made in the table which immediately follows: TABLE 54.-Old and new immigration compared with respect to average number of persons

per room and per sleeping room.

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The succeeding table and accompanying chart show, ky general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per room and the number and per cent of households having each

TABLE 55. —Persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Per cent of households having two or more persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

GENERAL NATIVITYAND RACE

20

40

80

80

NATIVE-BORN OF NATIVE FATHER

WHITE
FOREIGN-BORN

BOHEMIAN AND

MORAVIAN
CANADIAN, FRENCH
OROATIAN
ENGLISH
GERMAN
HEBREW
IRISH
ITALIAN, NORTH
ITALIAN, SOUTH
LITHUANIAN
MAGYAR
POLISH
RUTHENIAN
SLOVAK

SWEDISH
TOTALS

NATIVE-BORN OF

FOREIGN FATHER
NATIVE-BORN
FOREIGN-BORN
GRAND TOTAL

The preceding table shows that in the 17,141 households investigated there is an average of 1.30 persons per room.

The average number of persons per room in the total number of households the heads of which are of each nativity group is seen to be largest in those the heads of which were foreign-born, there being an average of 1.38 persons per room in these households. Those the heads of which were native-born negroes follow closely with an average of 1.30 persons per room, while those the heads of which were native-born of foreign father show an average of 0.85 person, and those the heads of which were native-born whites of native father an average of 0.77 person per room. Considering by race the households the heads of which were foreign-born, it is seen that those the heads of which were Macedonians, Roumanians, and Bulgarians show an average of 3.15, 2.57, and 2.53 persons per room, respectively, none of those the heads of which are of each other race showing an average number of persons per room as high as 2, although all, except those the heads of which are Brava, Cuban, Danish, Dutch, English, French, Norwegian, Spanish, Swedish, and Welsh, show an average of more than 1 person per room. The households the heads of which are French show the lowest average number of persons per room, or 0.88.

Considering that section of the table which shows the per cent of households having each specified number of persons per room, it is seen that of the total number of households, 74.1 per cent have 1 or more, 23.1 per cent 2 or more, 4.9 per cent 3 or more, and 1.1 per cent 4 or more persons per room. Of the total number of households the heads of which are of each nativity group, those the heads of which were native-born negroes show the largest proportions having 1 or more and 3 or more persons per room, those the heads of which were native-born whites of native father showing the smallest proportion in the first instance and those the heads of which were native-born of foreign father the smallest proportion in the second instance. The households the heads of which were foreign-born show the largest proportion having 2 or more and 4 or more persons per room, those the heads of which were native-born of foreign father showing the smallest proportion in the first instance and those the heads of which were native-born negroes and native-born of foreign father showing none in the second instance. Of the households the heads of which are of each race, those the heads of which are Bulgarians, Roumanians, and Servians, with 33.1 per cent, 18.2 per cent, and 7.2 per cent, respectively, are the only ones showing as high as 4 per cent having 4 or more persons per room, the households the heads of which are of several races showing none.

The households the heads of which are of the same races, with the addition of those the heads of which are Croatians, Magyars, Russians, and Ruthenians, are the only ones showing as high as 10 per cent having 3 or more persons per room, the proportions ranging from 51.8 per cent of those the heads of which are Bulgarians to 10.1 per cent of those the heads of which are Magyars.

The difference between the proportion of the households the heads of which are of the races of older immigration and the proportion of those the heads of which are of races of more recent immigration having 1 or more and 2 or more persons per room is noticeable, the proportion of the former being smaller in each instance.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per sleeping room and the number and per cent of households having each specified number of persons per sleeping room: TABLE 56.—Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

Number of households having

each specified number of per-
sons per sleeping room.

Per cent of households having

each specified number of persons per sleeping room.

Total Average General nativity number number and race of head of of persons of household. house- per sleep

holds. ing room.

2 or 3 or

4 or
5 or 6 or 2 or 3 or 4 or

5 or

6 or more. more. more. more. more. more. more. more more. more.

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Native-born of native father: White.

1,139 Negro...

148 Native-born of for

eign father, by
race of father:
Bohemian and
Moravian...

25
Canadian,
French.

18 Canadian, Other 12 Dutch.

17 English..

38 German.

226 Irish

313 Polish.

78 Foreign-born: Armenian..

120 Bohemian and Moravian..

501 Brava....

30 Bulgarian.

139 Canadian, French..

506 Croatian.

617 Cuban.

43 Danish..

20 Dutch

144 English.

461 Finnish

142 Flemish.

85 French..

146 German.

948 Greek

226 Hebrew

749 Irish

731 Italian, North. 653 Italian, South.. 1,530 Japanese

3 Lithuanian.

79 Macedonian.

12 Magyar.

911 Mexican.

42 Norwegian.

26 Polish..

2,106 Portuguese.

232 Roumanian.

77 Russian..

75 Ruthenian.

531 Scotch.

135 Servian.

69 Slovak.

1,319 Slovenian.

174 Spanish.

39 Swedish

485 Syrian.

165 Turkish.

50 Welsh..

94 Grand total.. 17,141 Total native-born

of foreign father.. 727 Total native-born.. 2,014 Total foreign-born.. 15, 127

b 29

2.07 324 75 14 3.18 554 358

195 2. 15

27 11 4 1.62 71 2 2. 34 103 51 15 1.89 258 601 9 2.92 125 81 47 2. 26 59 31 11 1.81 78 24 6 2. 15 615

204 65 2. 13 153 46 14 2. 55 6 628 6 319 6 119 1.98

6 417 6 119 2. 59 540 279 105 2.62

1,310 681 203 (a)

3 2 1 2. 45 644 260 3. 70 11 11 2. 92 820

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1 2.77 1,879 1,043 392 2.39 188

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15 2. 85 487

102 2. 18. 88 28 8 2. 89 61

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149

791 27 2.02 26 6 2.02 310 102 35 1.87 93

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.
d Not including 1 household not reporting number of sleeping rooms.

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