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Per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

GENERAL NATIVITYAND RACE

20

40

60

80

NATIVE-BORN OF NATIVE FATHER:

WHITE
FOREIGN-BORN,

BOHEMIAN AND

MORAVIAN
CANADIAN, FRENCH
CROATIAN
GERMAN
HEBREW
IRISH
ITALIAN, NORTH
ITALIAN, SOUTH
LITHUANIAN
MAGYAR
POLISH
RUTHENIAN

SLOVAK
TOTALS,

NATIVE - BORN OF

FOREIGN FATHER
NATIVE-BORN
FOREIGN-BORN
GRAND TOTAL

In the foregoing table it is seen that only 10 per cent of the households the heads of which were native-born white persons of native father and 10.9 per cent of the households the heads of which were of native birth but of foreign father have boarders or lodgers, as contrasted with 32.9 per cent of the households the heads of which were of foreign birth. Moreover, the showing for the total number of households the heads of which were foreign-born is rendered more favorable than it would be if limited to the

households of recent immigration by the small percentage of boarders or lodgers in the households of older immigrants. The relative extent to which boarders or lodgers are kept by southern and eastern European and British and northern European immigrant households is strikingly shown by the following percentages taken from the foregoing tabulation, representing the principal races of both classes of immigrants: TABLE 50.Old and new immigralion compared with respect to the keeping of boarders

or lodgers, by race.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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None of the races of older immigration show as large a proportion as one-fifth of their households with boarders or lodgers, while more than one-fourth of the Brava, Portuguese, Slovenian, and Syrian households, more than one-third of the North and South Italian, Polish, and Slovak, and more than one-half of the Croatian, Lithuanian, Magyar, Roumanian, Russian, Ruthenian, and Servian households have boarders or lodgers. By far the largest proportion of households with boarders or lodgers is exhibited by the Roumanians with 77.9 and the Servians with 92.8 per cent of such households.

The real significance of this situation in its bearing upon congestion and living conditions does not become fully apparent, however, until the next table is presented. This shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of boarders or lodgers per household. Two sets of averages are computed. The first is based upon the total number of households studied and the second is restricted to the number of households keeping boarders TABLE 51. — Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and

race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

[graphic]

Average number of

boarders or lodgers

per household.

Number of
General nativity and race of head of house number of keeping

Total households Number of
boarders

Based on hold.

households. boarders or lodgers. Based on number of or lodgers.

total num- households

ber of keeping households. boarders

or lodgers.

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8.29 2. 42

6.39 (a) (a) (@

1.85 3. 90 2. 43 1. 86 3. 16 1.80 1.40 1. 69 3.47 3.06

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Upon referring to the table, it is seen that the households the heads of which were native-born white persons of native father have only 168 boarders or lodgers to each 100 households, and the total number of households the heads of which were native-born whites of foreign father only 162 boarders or lodgers for each 100 households, as contrasted with 353 boarders or lodgers for each 100 households the heads of which were of foreign birth. Upon comparing the races of recent and past immigration among the households the heads of which were foreign-born, the larger number of boarders or lodgers in the households of the former is at once apparent. The showing made by the principal races of each follows:

TABLE 52.-Old and new immigration compared with respect to number of boarders or

lodgers to each 100 households keeping boarders or lodgers.

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Among the races of old immigration, the Germans exhibit by far the largest number of boarders or lodgers per household. of the races of recent immigration, the Hebrew is the only race approaching the situation among the native-born households. The Greek households show a small average number among those keeping boarders or lodgers, but as practically all Greek households are boarding groups the showing for the race is more favorable than it would otherwise be.

CONGESTION.

The table following shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per apartment, per

TABLE 53.- Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

General nativity and race of head of household.

Average number of persons per-
Total num-

ber of
households.
Apartment. Room.

Sleeping
room.

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Native-born of native father:

White.

Negro.
Native-born of foreign father, by race of father:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other
Dutch.
English..
German..
Irish.

Polish.
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian..
Brava..
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Danish.
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
Flemish.
French..
German.
Greek,
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese.
Lithuanian.
Macedonian.
Magyar..
Mexican.
Norwegian
Polish.
Portuguese..
Roumanian.
Russian..
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Serrian..
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish
Swedish.
Syrian..
Turkish.
Welsh...

120 501

30 139 506 617 43 20 144 461 142

85 146

1.03 1.18

.98 2.53 1.17 1.88 .99 .72 .97 .87 1.37 1.09

.88 1.02 1. 48 1.36 1.02 1.42

948

4.98 5.14 3. 73 6.19 5. 82 7. 65 4. 65 4.05 5. 68 4.52 4.92 4. 66 3. 90 5.19 6. 13 5. 27 5. 45 5.50

5.65 (a)

5. 89 7.08 6. 44 4.67 5. 88 6.06 6.68 12. 47 5. 93 6. 66 5. 40 9. 62

226
749
731

653
1,530

3 791

12 911 42

26 2, 106 232 77 75 531 135 69

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1.97 2.54 2. 24 3. 20 2.07 3.18 2.15 1.62 2. 34 1. 89 2. 92 2. 26 1.81 2.15 2. 13 2.55 1. 98 2. 59

2. 62 (a)

2. 45 3. 70 2.92 3. 27 2. 28 2. 77 2. 39 3. 72 2. 85 2.83 2. 18 2. 89

90 2. 66 2.02 2.02 1.87 1.95 2.11

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.96

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A comparison of the totals of the foregoing table discloses the fact that the foreign-born households have a higher average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room than those the heads of which were native-born of native or foreign father. The contrast is most marked between the nativity, groups in the average number of persons per room and per sleeping room. For

48296°—VOL 19-11-11

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