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TABLE 47.Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by gen

eral nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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95.5 100.0

95.7 98.7 95.6 100.0

Native-born of native father:

White...

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by race of
father:

English.
German.
Irish.

Polish..
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava..
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French
Croatian
Cuban.
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
Flemish.
French.
German.
Greek
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian..
Magyar
Mexican..
Polish...
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian
Spanish
Swedish..
Syrian.
Turkish.
Welsh..

Grand total...
Total native-born of foreign father..
Total native-born.

98.2 98.2 100.0 77.8 98.7 96.1 100.0 97.6 98.2 98.4 100.0 98.1 99.1 95.1 75. 2 99.2 99.8 90.6 98.0 98.1 100.0

97.4 100.0 83.1 88.9 100.0 96.6 92.4 98.4 93.0 100.0 100.0 95.9 100.0 100.0

95. 7

96.9 96.4

Of the 13,122 households paying rent and reporting amount, the preceding table shows that 1 per cent pay under $1; 36.1 per cent under $2; 83.8 per cent under $3, and 95.7 per cent under $4 per month per room, the average rent per room being $2.17. While none of the households the heads of which were native-born of native father negro pay under $1 per month per room, a larger proportion of these households than of those the heads of which were of another nativity group pay under each other specified amount; thus making the average rent per month per room lowest in the households the heads of which were native-born of native father negroes. Not a great difference is shown between the proportion of households the heads of which were native-born of native father whites, or of foreign father, or those the heads of which were foreign-born, paying each specified amount; hence the average rent per room is $2.24 for those households the heads of which were native-born of native father whites, and $2.16 for those households the heads of which were foreign-born.

Considering, by race, those households the heads of which were foreign-born, it is seen that less than 10 per cent of those the heads of which were of each race, except Finnish, pay under $1 per month per room. Attention is called to those households the heads of which were Dutch and those the heads of which were Finns. The former show only 7.1 per cent, as against 32.3 per cent of the latter, paying under $1 per month per room. On the other hand, the former show 85.7 per cent paying under $2, and 97.6 per cent paying under $3; while the latter show only 62.9 per cent and 93.5 per cent, respectively, paying these amounts. The average rent per room is thus lower in those households the heads of which were Dutch than in those the heads of which were Finns. All of the households the heads of which were Bravas or Mexicans, and over 95 per cent of those the heads of which were Dutch, Portuguese or Turks, as compared with less than 50 per cent of those the heads of which were Hebrews, and less than 75 per cent of those the heads of which were Bulgarians, Roumanians, or Scotch, pay under $3 per month per room. None of the households the heads of which were Bravas, Cubans, Flemish, Mexicans, Portuguese, Ruthenians, Spanish, Swedes, Turks, or Welsh pay as high as $4 per month per room, and over 90 per cent of those the heads of which were of each other race except Bulgarian, Hebrew, Roumanian, or Russian, pay under this amount.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person.

TABLE 48.- Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

races.]

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Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro.
Native-born of foreign father, by race of
father:

English.
German..
Irish.

Polish.
Foreign-born:

Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava..
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian
Cuban
Dutch
English.
Finnish.
Flemish
French.
German.
Greek.
Ilebrew.
Irish...
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Mexican
Polish.
Portuguese
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish.
Swedish.
Syrian
Turkish.
Welsh.

109
170

30
135
464
460
41
42
380
62
45
105
549
223
690
505

458
1, 256

637
774

36
1,679
202
71
72
488
89

66 1,064 128

36 265 147 50 43

2. 25
1.71
1.99

.97
1.70
1.09
2. 47
1. 45
2.34
1.34
1.76
1.98
1.98
1.47
2. 26
1.97
1. 40
1.58
1.47
1. 30

.97 1.24 1.31 1.02 1.27 1. 15 2. 41 1.03 1. 18 1. 44 2. 49 2.38 2.09 1.54 1.97

2.8
7.6

.0
41.5
11.0
32. 2

.0 11.9

6.8 19.4

.0 10.5

8.0 15.7 1.3 6.9 19.9 17.8 11.0 26.4 55.6 26. 1 16.3 38.0 31.9 30.5

9.0 37.9 30.3 17.2

.0 1.9 1.4 4.0 14.0

36. 7
55. 3
40.0
94. 1
60.8
80.4
24. 4
73.8
34.5
77.4
55.6
42.9
41.5
71.3
36.8
44.4
65.9
61.5
71.7
78. 2
83.3
79.0
72.8
81.7
68. 1
87.7
33.7
90.9
81.3
62.5
25. 0
29.8
40.1
78.0
44. 2

70.6 85. 3 73.3 96. 3 83.6 94.3 63.4 88. 1 61.8 93.5 86.7 70.5 69.0 89.7 69.3 73.9 89.1 85.4 92.6 93.3 100.0 94.2 93.6 98.6 84.7 97.3 53.9 98.5 94. 4 85. 2 58.3 60.4 78. 2 94.0 76.7

88. 1 95.9 86.7 98.5 92.9 97.4 82.9 95. 2 76.1 96.8 95.6 88.6 85.2 96.0 86.5 89. 1 97.2 93.6 97.3 98. 2 100.0 98.5 98.5 100.0 95.8 99.4 77.5 98.5 98.3 96.1 91.7 77.0 93.2 100.0 86.0

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Of 13,122 households included in the preceding table, 16.8 per cent pay under $1, 61 per cent under $2, 82.1 per cent under $3, and 91.5 per cent under $4 per month per person, the average rent per month per person being $1.60. The households the heads of which were native-born of native father negro show a larger proportion paying each specified rent per month per person than do those the heads of which are of another nativity group, consequently the lowest average rent per month per person. Although the proportion of households the heads of which were native-born of foreign father paying under $1 per month per person is smaller than the

of native father white paying this amount, the proportion paying each other specified amount is smaller in those households the heads of which were native-born of native father white than of those the heads of which were native-born of foreign father, consequently the former show the higher average rent per month per person. The average rent per month per person paid by the households the heads of which were foreign-born is above that paid by the households the heads of which were native-born of native father negro, but quite below that paid by the households the heads of which were nativeborn either of native or foreign father.

Considering, by race, the households the heads of which were foreign-born, it is seen that those the heads of which were Mexicans or Bulgarians each pay an average rent of less than $1 per month per person; none of those the heads of which were of the former race, and only 3.7 per cent of those the heads of which were of the latter, paying as high as $3. In addition to those households the heads of which were Mexicans, none of those the heads of which were Roumanians or Turks pay as high as $4 per month per person. Only those households the heads of which were Armenians, Cubans, English, Hebrews, Scotch, Spanish, Swedes, or Syrians pay an average rent per month per person as high as $2. In no instance does the average reach $2.50, however. The households the heads of which were Bravas, Cubans, Flemish, or Spanish are the only ones none of which pay under $1 per month per person.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

a

One of the most significant features in connection with the households the heads of which were of recent immigration, as compared with the households of the older immigrants or native Americans, is the almost entire absence of a separate or independent family life. The system of living, which prevails among the southern and eastern European households the heads of which are wage-earners in any branch of mining or manufacturing in any section of the country is that of the boarding group. This method of domestic economy, in the idiom of industrial communities, is termed the boarding-boss system.” It consists of a living arrangement under which the head, usually a married man, assumes charge of the households, and the boarders or lodgers, numbering from 2 to 20, pay a fixed amount monthly for lodging, cooking, and washing. The food for the household is usually purchased by the head, each member of the group reimbursing the head for the specific articles bought for his consumption, or the total cost of the food consumed is divided equally each week or month among the members composing the group. Many variations upon this arrangement are met with, but some form of it constitutes the method of living usually followed by recent immigrant households. The wife of the head, or some woman employed by him or the group, does the cooking, washing, and housework. This group system of living, which causes congestion, insanitary conditions, and renders impossible any satisfactory form of family life, is made possible by the low standards of the recent immigrants and by their desire to live as cheaply as possible, or, in the case of families, to supplement the earnings of the head as an industrial worker. In native American families, or those whose heads were native-born of native father, when boarders or lodgers are kept as a source of additional income, the payment of a fixed rate of a specified amount for board during a certain period is the plan adopted. This class of families, however, usually depends upon the earnings of the children for supplementary income. Of the total number of 17,171 families studied, the following table and accompanying chart show, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage which had boarders or lodgers: TABLE 49.- Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general

nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

entire year.

Households keeping boarders or lodgers.

General nativity and race of head of household.

Total num

ber of households.

Number.

Per cent.

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13.2

6.6 13. 4 5. 1

Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro.
Native-born of foreign father, by race of father:

Bohemnian and Moravian.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.
Dutch.
English.
German.
Irish.

Polish..
Foreign-born:

Armenian
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava.
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Danish.
Dutch
English.
Finnish.
Flemish.
French.
German.
Greek
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese
Lithuanian.
Macedonian
Magyar.
Mexican
Norwegian
Polish.
Portuguese
Roumanian
Russian
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Servian..
Slovak.
Slovenian.
Spanish.
Swedish.
Syrian..
Turkish
Welsh..

Grand total.......
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born.

120 501

30 139 506 617 43 20 144 461 142

85 146 948 226 749 731

653 1,530

3 791

12 911 42

26 2, 106 232 77 75 531 135

69 1,319 174

39 485 165 50 94

20.8

88 30.0 12. 2 15. 4 59.5

9.3 10.0

6. 3 12.8

7.0 16.5

9.6 16.2

6.6 1S. 4 14.8 34. 2

33.5 (0)

57.6 (a)

33.6 21. 4

3.8 48. 4 25$ 77.9 54.7 56.9

8.9 92.8 36.0 32.5 17.9 12.0 30.9

2.0 14.9

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17, 171

5,177

30.1

727 2.014 15, 127

79 199 4,978

10.9

9.9 32.9

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