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CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Congestion-[Text

Tables 45 to 57 and General Tables 29 to 37).

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The rent payments made by the households studied the heads of which were wage-earners afford a valuable insight into the cost of living, but they are chiefly significant in their bearing upon standards and methods of living. Of the total number of 13,122 households studied which rented their apartments, the following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average rent pay. ments monthly per apartment, per room, and per person: TABLE 45.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

General nativity and race of head of household.

Number of

Average rent per-
households
paying rent
and report-

Apartment. Room. Person. ing amount.

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Native-born of native father:
White...

862 $11.55 Negro.

140

4.34 Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: Bohemian and Moravian..

7 (a) Canadian, French.

18

13. 25 Canadian, Other..

11

10.95 Dutch.

3 (a) English.

23

11. 46 German.

151

11.58 Irish.

248

12. 16 Polish.

51

8. 38 Foreign-born: Armenian..

109

11. 17 Bohemian and Moravian.

170

7.72 Brava..

30

7.41 Bulgarian.

135

5.91 Canadian, French.

464

9.84 Croatian.

460

8. 55 Cuban

41

11. 70 Danish.

10

10. 20 Dutch.

42

7. 49 English

380

10. 40 Finnish

62

5.33 Flemish.

45

7.59 French.

105

7. 43 Gerinan..

549

10.06 Greek.

223

9.02 Hebrew

690

11. S1 Irish..

505 10. 47 Italian, North

458

7.66 a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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Table 45.- Average' rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household

Continued.

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In the table above it is seen that the highest average monthly rents per apartment, per room, and per person are paid by the households the heads of which were native-born white persons of native father. The monthly rent payments per apartment and per room of the households the heads of which were of native birth but of foreign father are practically the same as those of the households the heads of which were of native birth and of native father, but the monthly rent outlay per capita is somewhat smaller in the former class of households than in the latter.

Without the presence of any disturbing factors, the monthly rents per apartment and per room would be indicative of standards of living. It may be, however, that a high monthly rental is paid for an apartment, but a large number of persons live in it. On the other hand, in the case of the housing facilities in connection with some industry, such as mining, the company-house system may be followed, and the only houses available consist of those upon which a fixed charge per room is made, the rental for any house being dependent upon the number of its rooms. Under these conditions the rent per person is the only criterion of standard of living.

As a matter of fact, in the case of the greater number of industries in the households the heads of which were of foreign birth the practice is adopted of crowding as large a number of persons as is possible into the apartment or rooms in order to reduce the average capita affords an indication of the congestion and of the living arrangements not obtainable from the other two rent classifications. A striking illustration of this situation may be seen in the case of the Turkish households in the table. The monthly rent per apartment paid by the households of this race averages $13.70 and per room $2.18, but the rent each month per capita is only $1.54, plainly indicating that a large number of persons are crowded into the apartments and rooms. The higher standard of living and the smaller degree of congestion in households the heads of which were born in Great Britain and northern Europe, as compared with those of southern and eastern Europe, is exhibited by the following classification of some of the leading facts of the table. The average rent payments monthly per capita of some of the principal races of the old immigration were as follows:

Canadian, French..
$1. 70 | Irish..

$1.97 Danish...

2. 49
Scotch.

2. 41 Dutch.. 1. 45 Swedish.

2. 38 English.

2. 34
Welsh..

1. 97 German.

1.98 From the above showing it is seen that of the races from Canada, Great Britain, and northern Europe, the smallest degree of congestion and the highest standard of living are exhibited by the Danish, Scotch, and Swedish households. A considerably lower standard is indicated by the Irish, Germans, and Welsh. The French Canadians fall greatly below the three last-named races. The contrast afforded by the comparison of the monthly rent payments per person of the southern and eastern European and oriental races is as follows: Armenian.. $2. 25 | Mexican..

$0.97 Brava.. 1.99 Polish..

1. 24 Bulgarian. .97 | Portuguese.

1.31 Croatian. 1.09 Roumanian.

1.02 Greek. 1. 47 Russian..

1. 27 Hebrew. 2. 26 Ruthenian.

1. 15 Italian, North. 1. 40 Servian..

1.03 Italian, South. 1. 58 Slovak,

1. 18 Lithuanian.. 1. 47 Slovenian.

1. 44 Macedonian. . 78 Syrian.

2. 09 Magyar..... 1.30 Turkish.

1.54 With the exception of the Armenian, Brava, Syrian, and Hebrew households, which approach the figures of the older immigrants in their monthly rent payments per person, the lower standards of living of the southern and eastern European and oriental races is apparent. This is especially noticeable in the case of the Croatian, Macedonian, and Bulgarian, Mexican, Roumanian, Servian, and Slovak. The tendencies toward congestion and its effect upon living arrangements thus indicated becomes more manifest in the discussion of the subsequent tabulations having to do with the number of persons in apartments, rooms, and sleeping rooms of the households studied.a

a Table 53, p. 155.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment: Table 46.—Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

Per cent paying

General nativity and race of head

of household.

Number of households

Average

rent per
paying
rent and

apart

ment.
reporting
amount.

Under Under Under Under

$5. $7.50. $10. $12.50.

Under Under $15. $20.

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109
170

30
135
464
460
41

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Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by
race of father:

English.
German..
Irish..

Polish..
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava..
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Dutch
English..
Finnish
Flemish.
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew.
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Mexican.
Polish..
Portuguese.
Roumanian.
Russian.
Ruthenian
Scotch
Servian
Slovak
Slovenian.
Spanish
Swedish.
Syrian.
Turkish
Welsh.

Grand total.

380 62 45 105 549 223 690 505

458
1, 256

637
774

11.17
7.72
7.41
5.91
9.84
8. 55
11.70

7.49
10.40
5.33
7.59
7.43
10.06

9. 02 11.81 10. 47 7.66 8. 64 8. 81 8.27 4.58 7.30 8.53 12. 86 7.46 7.61 12. 19 9. 78 6.84 7.96 11. 69 11.03

9.80 13. 70 10.45

32.3

8.9 14.3 2.7 1.3 1.2 1.2 7.2 16.1 3.8 8.0 75.0 9.8

12.8 51.8 53.3 74.1 21.6 44.6

9.8 54.8 21.8 88.7 55.6 45.7 22.4 35.4

9.4 14.9 52.2 43.2 30.5 50.4 100.0 57.5 39.6 28.2 58.3 48.8 22.5 18.2 68.0 39.1 16.7 11.7 35.4

.0 27.9

41.3 80.0 83.3 79.3 70.3 61.3 14.6 83.3 47.1 93.5 75.6 79.0 48.3 60.5 34.5 43.0 77.1 63.4 63.7 80.5 100.0 83.9 74.3 35.2 75.0 83.0 32.6 50.0 89.7 67.2 38.9 30.2 59.9 24.0 55.8

70.6 95.3 100.0 90.4 85.6 88.3 51.2 97.6 75.0 100.0 97.8 94.3 78.5 87.0 62.0 78.0 96.5 83.7 93.2 95.3 100.0 97.0 94.1 53.5 93. 1 98.2 51.7 81.8 98. 9 96.9 55.6 74.3 81.0 46.0 69.8

81.7 97.6 100.0 92.6 91.8 93.9 87.8 100.0

84.5 100.0 97.8 99.0 87.6 94.2 78. 6 88.9 98.0 90.0 97.0 97.8 100.0 99.2 95.0 63.4 97.2 99. 6 68.5 90.9 99.7 100.0 72.2 86.0 91.2 54.0 76.7

95.4 98.8 100.0 100.0 95.9 99.3 100.0 100.0

96.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 98. 2 99.1 94.5 97.4 99.8 98.6 99.7 100.0 100.0 99.8 98.5 81.7 100.0 99.6 94. 4 98.5 99.9 100.0 94.4 97.7 97.3 88.0 93.0

36

2.5

1,679
202
71
72
488
89

66
1,064
128

36 265 147 50 43

7.0 18.1 4.1

.0 4.5 12.8 8.6 .0 .0 6.8 .0

4.7

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Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..

512 1,514

11.50
10.86

1.8
7.6

14.1
23.7

34.0
40.9

64.6
68. 2

78.3
79.3

94.7
94.6

The preceding table shows that the average rent per month per apartment of the total number of households, or 13,122, paying rent and reporting amount is $8.96; the households the heads of which were foreign-born paying an average of $8.72 per month per apartment; those the heads of which were native-born white of native father paying an average of $11.55, and those the heads of which were native-born negroes paying an average of $4.34. As regards the households the heads of which were of the several foreign races, it is seen that the average rent per month per apartment of those the heads of which were Armenians, Cubans, English, German, Hebrew, Irish, Roumanians, Scotch, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, and Welsh is above $10. In no instance, however, does it reach' $14. The average rent per month per apartment paid by the households the heads of which were of the remaining races ranges from $9.84, paid by those the heads of which were French Canadians, to $4.58 paid by those the heads of which were Mexicans. The average rent per month per apartment paid by the households the heads of which were native-born of foreign father compares very favorably with that paid by those the heads of which were native-born white of native father, only those households the heads of which were of Polish parentage paying an average of less than $10.

The proportion of the households paying each specified rent per month.per apartment is merely a verification of the average rent paid, the relative position of the households the heads of which were of the different nativity groups and different races being maintained throughout. For instance, of the households the heads of which were of the different nativity groups, those the heads of which were nativeborn negroes show the lowest average rent and also the entire number paying under $10, while those the heads of which were native-born white of native father show the highest average rent and also the largest proportion paying $20 or over. Among the households the heads of which were of the several foreign races, those the heads of which were Mexicans show the lowest average rent, the entire number paying under $7.50; while those the heads of which were of the Turkish race show the highest average rent, none paying under $7.50. Although the proportion of households the heads of which were Roumanians, paying $20 or over per month per apartment, is larger than of those the heads of which were Mexicans, this is more than overcome by the larger proportions paying under each other specified amount, 28.2 per cent of those the heads of which were Roumanians, as compared with none of those the heads of which were Mexicans, paying under $7.50.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room.

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