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Of 4,010 females in the households studied 16 years of age or over, the foregoing table shows that 98 per cent worked three months or over, 93 per cent six months or over, 79.8 per cent nine months or over, and 50.6 per cent twelve months during the past year. Of the different nativity groups, the native-born of native father, white, show a larger proportion than the native-born of foreign father, which in turn show a larger proportion than the foreign-born working each specified number of months, the native-born of either native father, white, or foreign father showing slightly above, while the foreign-born show slightly below, 50 per cent working twelve months, and each showing over 95 per cent working three months or over.

Considering the foreign-born by race, it is seen that over 80 per cent of the Magyars, over 70 per cent of the Ruthenians, 50 per cent or over of the Bohemians and Moravians, Germans and Hebrews, as compared with 26.5 per cent of the Portuguese, and a range of from 49.5 per cent of the Irish to 32.9 per cent of the French Canadians, worked 12 months, or the entire past year. Over 75 per cent of each

except the Bohemian and Moravian, Greek, North Italian, South Italian, Portuguese, and Syrian, and over 60 per cent of each of these, except the Syrian, worked nine months or over during the past year. All of the Bohemians and Moravians, over 90 per cent of each other race, except the Greek, North Italian, South Italian, Portuguese, Slovak, and Syrian, and over 80 per cent of each of these worked six months or over during the past year. In addition to the Bohemians and Moravians, all of the English, French, and Hebrews worked three months or over, the Slovaks and Syrians being the only ones showing less than 95 per cent working this length of time.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR. The extent to which industrial workers are members of labor organizations is set forth in the following table and accompanying chart, which show, by general nativity and race of individual, affiliation with trade unions of 24,594 males in the households studied who were 21

years

of age or over and who were working for wages:

TABLE 44.- Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working

for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

Affiliated with trade

unions.

General nativity and race of individual.

Number reporting complete

data.

Number.

Per cent.

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Native-born of native father:
White...

1,273 Negro..

162 Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: Bohemian and Moravian.

60 Canadian, French.

88 Canadian, Other..

14 Croatian.

1 Cuban.

6 Danish.

2 Dutch

36 English.

84 Finnish.

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Table 44.-- Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working

for wages, by general nativity and race of individual-Continued.

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22.1

4.8 (a)

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.2 23. 2

4.7 22.7

1 133 43 10 2 3 87

()

Natire-bom of foreign father, by race of father-Continued.

Flemish.
French.
German.
Hebrew.
Irish
Italian, North.
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Norwegian.
Polish
Portuguese.
Ruthenian.
Scotch..
Slovak.
Slovenian.
Swedish.

Welsh.
Foreign-born:

Armenian,
Bohemian and Moravian
Bosnian.
Brava.
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Danish.
Dutch
English
Finnish
Flemish.
French.
German.
Greek.
Gypsy.
Hebrew
Irish...
Italian, North
Italian, South
Japanese
Lithuanian.
Macedonian.
Magyar
Merican.
Montenegrin.
Norwegian.
Polish.
Portuguese
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian
Scotch..
Berrian.
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish
Swedish
Syrian..
Turkish
Welsh..

3 19 51 41

2.0 16.6

.0 5.0 11.2 4.6 5.9

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21.4

163 107 351 258

14 152 524 185

60 169 1, 101 700

2 761 724

881 2,428

71 1, 408

76 1,501 56

1

27 3,280

297 141 150 684 165

160 1,706 204

54 515 257 282 100

497

14.8 39.8 10.6

0 35.3

0 9.7 100.0

146 56

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1 313

8

37 144 29

3.7 9.5 2.7

.0 24.7 21.1 17.6

.0 13.7

1.5 22.2 9.3 5.4

0

234

3 12 48 14

39

39.0

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13.5

Grand total.........
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Per cent of males 21 years of age or over working for wages, who are affiliated with trade unions, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Upon referring to the preceding table, it is seen that only a very small proportion, amounting to but 13.5 per cent of the total number of wage-earners studied were members of labor organizations. A very slightly greater proportion, less than 1 per cent, of the nativeborn than of the foreign-born, and only one-half of 1 per cent more of the native-born white of native father than of the foreign-born, were affiliated with labor unions. Of the wage-earners native-born of foreign father, the French Canadians, who are largely employed in the more skilled occupations of the cotton and woolen mills, show the highest degree of membership in labor organizations, followed, in the order named, by the Welsh, Irish, Germans, Slovaks, Swedes, English, Poles, and Bohemians and Moravians. The large proportion of negro unionists is not due to any special tendency on the part of this race to affiliate with labor organizations, but to the fact that the greater proportion of the small number of negroes for whom information was received were miners in unionized localities.

48296o_VOL 19-11-10

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