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Per cent of families having entire income from husband, by general nativity and race of head of family.

GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE

20

40

60

80

INATIVE BORN OF NATIVE FATHER

WHITE
FOREIGN-BORN

BOHEMIAN DO MORAVIAN
CANADIAN FRENCH
CROATIAN
ENGLISH
GERMAN
HEBREW
IRISH
ITALIAN, NORTH
ITALIAN, SOUTH
LITHUANIAN
MAGYAR
POLISH
RUTHENIAN
SLOVAK

SWEDISH
TOTALS
NATIVE-BORN OF

FOREIGN FATHER
NATIVE-BORN
FOREIGN-BORN

GRAND TOTAL TABLE 41.-Old and new immigration compared with respect to source of income, by race.

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The above comparison emphasizes the differences already noted in the discussion for the nativity groups. It is worthy of note, however, that the families or members of races of old immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe depend more upon the earnings of heads, the contributions of children, and the unspecified sources for the family income, while the southern and eastern Europeans derive their income mainly from the earnings of husbands and the contributions of boarders or lodgers. The smaller dependence of the latter class of families upon the contributions of children is probably due to the fact that children of these households have not in any considerable proportions reached working age. The fact that a larger proportion of old than of more recent immigrant families depend upon sources of income other than those specified arises from the fact that they have been in the United States for a longer period of time and have conse

CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS. Regularity of work—The immigrant and organized labor—[Text Tables 42 to 44 and

General Tables 27 and 28.]

REGULARITY OF WORK. The table which immediately follows shows, by general nativity and race of individual, months worked during the past year by males in the households studied who were 16 years

of
age

or over and who were employed away from home. Table 42.- Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

Per cent working

General nativity and race of individual.

Number reporting complete

data.

12 months.

9 months 6 months 3 months or over. or over. or over.

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70.2 76.2 88. 7 80.5 78.7 86.0 76.2 81.5 70.4 88.5 47.8 75.9 83. 3 69.7 63.3 93. 1 50.0

94.3 94.0 98. 6 96.2 95. 1 100.0 91.7 96.3 85.2 96.2 91.3 94.2 97.2 90.9 89.9 96.9 92.9

Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro.
Native-born of foreign father, by race of father:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French.
Dutch.
English.
German.
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar..
Polish.
Ruthenian
Scotch..
Slovak
Swedish.

Welsh.
Foreign-born:

Armenian
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava
Bulgarian
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
Flemish.
French
German.
Greek
Hebrew
Irish...
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese..
Lithuanian
Macedonian
Magvar.
Mexican.
Norwegian.
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Servian.

98.6 97.4 100.0 100.0

98.5 100.0

98.5 100.0

92.6 100.0 95.7 98.1 97.2 100.0 97.2 98.7 100.0

40.4 38. 2 80.0

6.7 39.1 31.5 67.4 43. 5 55.7 81.7 31.3 47.8 47.0 28.3 44.8 58.1 32.6 23.6

66.5
69. 2
87.3
22.6
79.3
59.3
89. 1
86.4
85.9
93.0
76.8
75.8
73.8
56. 6
76.4
84.1
58.4
60.7
86.7
66.8
34. 4
51.6

1.7
100.0
64.8
93.0
54.0
47.3
71.1
74.6
17.0

1,130

851
893
735

899
2,783

75 1,503

90 1,581

58

28
3, 538

344
1.50
165
953
169
182

88.8 96.0 96.4 72.3 96. 1 82.8 95. 7 98.7 96.8 100.0 88.9 94.9 95.0 80.3 95.3 95. 4 86.2 90.5 100.0 94.9 61.1 83.9 63.8 100.0 90.4 98.0 75. 3 88.5 91.8 95. 3 54.9

97.9 99.6 100.0 94.3 98.4 95. 5 97.8 100.0

99.5 100.0 99.0 99.4 98.7 96.5 98.8 99.2 99.6 98.5 100.0 98.3 94.4 96.6 98.3 100.0 97.9 99.7 90.7 97.6 98.1 100.0 84.6

44.0

23.2

6.7 27.5

.0 100.0 34. 1 55.8 37.3 20.6 42.6 41.4

5.5

TABLE 42.- Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed

away from home, by general nativity and race of individual-Continued.

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Of 27,909 males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home, the preceding table shows that 98 per cent worked three months or over, 90.5 per cent worked six months or over, 67.6 per cent worked nine months or over, and 37.1 percent worked twelve months during the past year. Of the different nativity groups, the native-born of native father negroes show the smallest, and the native-born of native father white the largest proportion working twelve months, nine months or over, and six months or over; while less than 5 per cent of each nativity group worked less than three months. There is a decidedly wider difference between the foreign-born and the native-born of foreign father than between the native-born of foreign father and the native-born of native father white as regards the proportions working each specified number of months; while, generally speaking, the foreign-born stand slightly below the native-born of native father negro.

Considering the foreign-born by race, it is seen that all of the Bravas, Dutch, Finnish, Japanese, Norwegians, Scotch, Spanish, and Swedes worked three months or over, while the Finnish, Japanese, and Norwegians are the only ones of these races which show the entire number as having worked six months or over. The Norwegian is the only race showing their entire number as having worked nine months or over, all of those of this race having worked the entire year. The Bulgarian, Macedonian, Mexican, and Servian races show the minimum proportions having worked the entire year, none of the Mexican and less than 7 per cent of the other races mentioned having worked twelve months. The Mexicans report only 1.7 percent of their number as having worked nine months or over; while the race showing the next lowest proportion is the Servian, 17 per cent of whom worked this length of time. The Bulgarian, Macedonian, Mexican, Servian, and Turkish are the only races less than 75 per cent of which worked six months or over, while the proportion of each of these races, except the Mexican, having worked three months or over is smaller than that of each other race included in the table.

Considering the several divisions of those native-born of foreign father, it is seen that those whose fathers were South Italians are the only ones as high as 5 per cent of whom did not work three months during the past year. Those whose fathers were Hebrews are the or over, although those whose fathers were South Italians or Slovaks are the only ones showing less than 90 per cent of their number as having worked this length of time. The proportions having worked nine months or over range from 50 per cent of those whose fathers were Welsh to 93.1 per cent of those whose fathers were Swedish. The proportion is largest of those whose fathers were Hebrews, next largest of those whose fathers were Swedish, and smallest of those whose fathers were Welsh, as regards those having worked the entire year, 74 per cent, 73.6 per cent, and 23.8 per cent, respectively, having worked twelve months. Those whose fathers were Dutch, English, German, Irish, or North Italians are the only ones, besides those whose fathers were Hebrews and Swedish, which show over 50 per cent of their number as having worked the entire year; while those whose fathers were Scotch are the only ones, besides those whose fathers were Welsh, which show less than 25 per cent of their number as having worked the entire year.

Ꭹ. The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, months worked during the past year by females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home: TABLE 43.- Months worked during the past year by females 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

Per cent working-

General nativity and race of individual.

Number reporting complete

12 data.

months.

9 months 6 months 3 months or over. or over. or over.

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Native-born of native father, White...
Naure-twrn of foreign lather, by race of father:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French..
Dutch.
English..
German.
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, South
Polish.
Scotch
Slovak.

Swedish
Foreign-born:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French..
English.
French..
German.
Greek.
Hebrew
Irish...
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar
Polish..
Portuguese.
Rutherian
Scotch.
Slovak.
Syrian...

Grand total...

33 210 92 45 89 125 150 107

71 213 110 127 368 162 237 34 78 76

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Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born.

1, 184 1,554 2, 456

55. 2
56.0
47.2

83.8
S4.6
76.8

95.3
95.7

989
99.0
97.4

91.3

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