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Per cent of families which have a total yearly income under $500, by general nativity and race of head of family.

GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE

20

40

60

80

NATIVE-BORN OF NATIVE FATHER

WHITE
FOREIGN-BORN, BY RACE

BOHEMIAN MORAVIAN
CANADIAN, FRENCH
CROATIAN
ENGLISH
GERMAN
HEBREW
IRISH
ITALIAN, NORTH
ITALIAN, SOUTH
LITHUANIAN
MAGYAR
POLISH
RUTHENIAN
SLOVAK

SWEDISH
TOTALS
NATIVE-BORN OF

NATIVE FATHER
NATIVE-BORN
FOREIGN-BORN

GRAND TOTAL Upon referring to the totals of the foregoing table, it is seen that the annual average income of the 15,726 households the heads of which were industrial workers is $721. Of the three general nativity groups, the families the heads of which were born abroad exhibit annual incomes $161 less than those the heads of which were nativeborn white wage-earners of native father and $162 less than those the heads of which were of native birth but of foreign father. About one-twelfth of the families the heads of which were of foreign birth have an annual income under $300, and about one-third, or 33.2 per cent, have an income per annum less than $500. Only 16.2 per cent of the families the heads of which were of foreign birth have a yearly income in excess of $1,000. On the other hand, only 13.5 per cent of the families the heads of which were native Americans or of native birth and of native father and only 17.3 per cent of those the heads of which were of native birth but of foreign father show incomes under $500 per annum, while 54.9

per

cent of the former and 52.1 per cent of the latter have an annual family income above $750. More than one-fourth of the families the heads of which were of native birth and of native or of foreign father received an income yearly above $1,000, but more than nine-tenths of the families of southern and eastern European races had an annual family income below this amount. The comparison of the average annual incomes of immigrant families of the old and new immigration may be readily seen in the following classification of the principal races:

Table 38.-Old and new immigration compared with respect to average annual family

income, by race.

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Upon comparing the yearly incomes of the two classes of immigrants, it is seen that the highest average shown by any race of recent immigration is below the lowest average shown by any race of past immigration, while in general the average annual incomes of the southern and eastern European races are much below the level of the British and northern European races.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The two tables which are next presented take up in detail the sources of family income and the relative importance of the sources specified. In this connection the first table submitted shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the proportion of families

which had an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, By the term “within the year" is meant the twelve months immediately preceding the collec'tion of the information:

TABLE 39.- Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife,

children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

Twenty-two families are excluded which report income as 'none.")

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Native-born of native father:

White...

Negro...
Native-born of foreign father, by race of
father:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French.
English.
German.
Irish.

Polish.
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava..
Canadian, French..
Croatian.
Cuban.
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
Flemish.
French..
German.
Greek
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North..
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Mexican.
Norwegian.
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian.
Spanish..
Swedish.
Syrian.
Welsh.

98 437

29 477 560

43 129 424 137

79 130 884

49 660 675

583
1,372

760
859
39

26
2,0
258
69
76
571
123

58 1, 242 103

37 460 142 90

89.8 96.1 93.1 90.8 99.1 93.0 98.4 94.3 99.3 98. 7 94.6 95.2 91.8 97.0 85.0 97.9 96.4 98.8 96.7 97.4 92.3 98.4 94. 2 98.6 98.7 94.0 95. 1 94.8 97.5 98.8 94.6 96.5 78.9 91.1

25.5
4.1
3.4
12.6

.9
11.6

.8 9.2

.0 3.9 33. 1

6.7 16.3 3.6 5.5 6.0 11.2 3. 2 5.5

24.5
33.9
10.3
45.1

7.3
23.3
41.9
37.7

9.5 34.2 27.7 39.9 16.3 24.1 50.1 13. 6 18. 2 11.4 12.7 10.3 38.5 14.5 29.5 4.3 5.3 13.5 43.9

.0 14.1 12.9 24.3 34.3 31.7 48. 9

23.5

9. 2 17.2 14.3 57.5 9.3 4.7 12.0

9.5 17.7 10.0 16.5 26. 5 17.9 13.9 35. 2 34.3 56. 4 53. 4 17.9

3. S 45.0 20.2 78.3 51.3 51.7 10.6 89.7 35.4 34.4 18.9 12.4 28. 2 11,1

22.4 19.9 10.3 10.7

5.4 11.6 11.6 11.6 10.2 17.7 16.9 19. 1 12.2

7.1 16.7 14.8

9.8 15.7

8.6 82.1 19.2

9.7 20.9 7.2 5.3 12.6 22.0

3.4 11.8 3.7 81 20.9

8.5 22.2

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.0 4.9 27.9 1.4 7.9 9.6 4.1 3.4 4.3 5.5

8.1

2. 4 28.2 1.1

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Grand total.
Total native-horn of foreign father..
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born.

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5.2 6. 3 6.9

19.8 20.2 22.5

10.6 10.0 32.9

12.0 12.2 12.7

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Upon referring to the preceding table, it is evident that almost all famílies studied, or slightly more than 95 per cent of those in each nativity group, had an income from the earnings of husbands. In the case of income from earnings of wives, contributions of children, or from unspecified sources, each nativity group also shows about the same proportion of families. The households the heads of which were foreign-born wage-earners, however, show a much larger percentage, or a proportion more than three times as great, receiving a contribution from the payments of boarders or lodgers as those the heads of which were native-born white persons of native father or of foreign father. The tendencies exhibited by the different races become more evident in the table which is next submitted. This table and accompaning chart show the sources of family income in detail according to general nativity and race of head of family, and, in contrast with the table immediately preceding, each source or combination of sources specified is exclusive of all other sources.

Table 40.--Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of

family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

Twenty-two families are excluded which report income as " none.")

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.0

.0

Native-born of native father:
White.

1,070 58.4 3. 1 14.0 0.5 Negro.

124 74.0 4.0

5. 61

.0 Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: Bohemian and Moravian. 24 75.00 12.5 4.21 .0 Canadian, French.

27 48. 1 11.1 11.1 .01 English.

42 52.4

4.8

16.7 .0 German

213 67.6 3.3 7.5 .51 Irish.

292 50.7 1.7 16. 1 .71 Polish

77
85.7

1.3 3.9 .01
Foreign-born:
Armenian.

98 29.6

12. 2 8.21 1.0 Bohemian and Moravian. 437 46.2 2.3 20.8 .5 Brava.

29
69.0

.0 0 Canadian, French.

477

32.7 8.0 29.6 1.3 Croatian.

560 34.3 .9 3. 8! .0 Cuban.

43 51.2 9.3 14.0 .0 Dutch.

129 46.5 .8 35. 7 English.

424 41.3 5.7 25.9 1.2 Finnish.

137 73.0 .0 7.3 .0 Flemish.

79 43.0 1.3 21.5 1.31 French.

130

26. 2 14. 6 1.51 German

884 37.3 2.8 22.6 1.6 Greek

49 38.8 12. 2 8.2.0 Hebrew

660 54. 4 2.0 17.7 Irish.

675 33. 2 1.8 26.5 Italian, North.

5831 41.0 3.9 7.4 .9 Italian, South.

1,372 39.7

9.3 .9 Lithuanian.

760 28.7 1.8 5.0 .1 Magyar.

839 32.1 2.1 4.8 .3 Mexican

39 10.3 .0 .0 Norwegian.

26 46.2 .0 26.9 .0 Polish.

2. 038 35. 8) 3. 51 8. 51 1 a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 4.

30.8

-DOWO IN OOONOOOOO

14.3 1.0 1.0 .0 5.1 .0

6.6 0 2 .0 2.3 .2 10.3 0 .0 3.4 3.41 .0

6.3 .2 1.5 .0 4.2 1.9
52.0 .0 .0

.2
9.3 2.31 .0 .0 2.3 .0
3.9 .0 .0 .08 0
7.1 .5 .5 .2 2.6
9.5 .0 .0 .0 .0
12.7

.0 0 .0 1.3
3. S 0 8 .0 .8 0
1

.I 1.6
18.4 0 2.0 .0 0 4.1
13.9 2

.0 1.7
6.4 11 1.0 .3 7.9

1.8
27.3 2 0 0 .3
26.5

1 .0 1.9 6
43. 7

.0 .5 .3 43.5 6 1 .2 .3 .8 5. 1 0

.0 2.6 .0 .0 .0

.0 3.8 3.8 37.71 (1)

.1 .3 .3 • Less than 0.05 per cent.

0

27.6 0 20.8

0 13.8 .2 14.3

4 8.4 .0 11.6 .0 12.4 .0 14.6 .0 10.2 0 19.0 01 21.5

1 23. 2 .0 16.3 .0 9.7 3 20.0 9 17.8

1 14.2 .0 19.7 7 14.3 0 82.1 0 19.2 3) 13. 2

9.6

6.6

TABLE 40.--Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of

familyContinued.

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One of the most striking contrasts exhibited by the foregoing table is the greater dependence of native-born families exclusively upon the earnings of heads than of the foreign-born, 60.3 per cent of the former and only 38 per cent of the latter relying entirely upon the wages of heads of the family for their support. The totals as to the proportion of families having an income from contributions of husbands and children are about the same in the case of each nativity group, the large extent to which children in the families of the races of old immigration contribute to the family support doubtless offsetting the almost entire lack of such source of income in case of the families of southern and eastern European immigrants. The fact already mentioned as to the dependence of families the heads of which were foreign-born upon the contributions of boarders or lodgers is even more strikingly set forth in the table under discussion than in the one preceding, 25.5 per cent of the foreign-born families, as contrasted with only 6.5 per cent of the total native-born, having an income entirely from husbands and boarders or lodgers. As regards the families of the several races, the tendencies exhibited may be more quickly seen by the division of the families the heads of which were foreign-born into two groups, according to whether the heads were of old or recent arrival in the United States. In making this division only the principal races and

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