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The table which is next presented sets forth, by general nativity and race, the average amount of weekly earnings of female employees who were 14 but under 18 years of age. The earnings of the females, it will be seen, average lower than the males in the same age classification.

TABLE 32.- Average rate of weekly earnings of female employees 14 and under 18 years

of age, by general nativity and race. *

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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$6.08

6.04 (a)

5. 43

6.51 (@)

6.89 6.00 5. 34 6.14 6.09 6. 05 5. 90 5. 72

4.94

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Native-born of native father:

White....

Negro. Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Australia.. Austria-Hungary Azores.. Belgium. Canada. Cape Verde Islands. Cuba.. Denmark England. Finland. France. Germany Greece India. Ireland. Italy Netherlands. Norway: Portugal. Roumania. Russia. Scotland. Spain. Sweden. Switzerland Turkey. Wales. Africa (country not speci

fied)...
South America (country

not specified).
Total.....

Total native-born...
Foreign-born, by race:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.

5. 43 5.87

5. 73 5. 40 6. 22

4. 41 4.72

6.00 (a)

3.50

5.82

5.85

5. 46

1 68

This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The table which immediately follows shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the range in annual earnings of male heads of families who were employed in mines and manufacturing estabTABLE 33.—Per cent of male heads of families earning each specified amount per year, by

general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more male heads of selected families. The totals, however, are

for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 4.]

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Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro. Native-born of foreign father, by race of father:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French.
English.
German.
Irish

Polish.
Foreign-born:

Armeulan..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Brava.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban.
Dutch.
English.
Finnish.
Flemish.
French
German.
Greek
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar
Mexican
Norwegian
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian.
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian.
Spanish.
Swedish.
Syrian.
Welsh.

Grand total.......
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born.

8.9

88 1.1 6.8 15.9 18.2 14.8 11.4 18.2 8.0 4.5 1.1 .0 420

1.4 5.5 13.8 20.2 20.2 13.1 15.0 2.9 4.0 2.4 27 .0 .0 3.7 22.2 37.0 22.2 14.8 .0 .0

.0 433 .91 1.6 5.3 15.0 14.1 17.6 19.6 14.3

4.6 555 2.71 4.3 10.5) 21.8 22.9 18.0 8.3 8.8 1.6 .7

40 .01 .0 2.5 2.5 .0 15.0 12.5 32.5 5.0 12.5 17.5 127

0 2.4 15.7) 18.9 24.4 20.5 12.6 3.1 1.6 .8 400

1.0 2.0 7.5 13.3 16.3 14.8 19.0 8.0 8.3 9.8 136

2.2 .0 2.2 3.71 13.2 14.71 58.1 3.7 1.5 .7 78. .01 7.7 6.4 2.6 19.2 25.6 11.5 20.5 2.6 3.8 .0 123 .0 1.6 5.7 14.6 30.1 24.4 16.3

1.6 2.4

2.4

.8 842 .2 2.7 5.11 11.5 17.9 16.2 14.3 14.1 5.2 5.6 7.1

45 6.7 15.6 13.3 26.7 11.1 11.1 8.9 0 4.4 .0 2.2 610 1.1 3.8 10.3 17.81 16.7 14.8 16.1 10.2

2.00 2.7 574 .2 2.1 4.0 9.41 16.0 16.4 18.5 12.0 4.2

8.4 571 .5 5.3 11.0 19.4 19.3 14.5 10.3 13.8

2.5

2.5 .9 1,323 1.0 6.7 18.2 24.3 20.8 11.0 7.1 5.9 1.9 1.7 1.4

751 1.2 3.1 8.9 18.5 28.1 20.6 9.7 4.4 2.1 1.6 1.7 831 2.3 7.8 12.6 22.6 20.2 15.6 10.5 6.4 .7 .6 .6 38 .0

10.5 52.6 26.3 7.9 2.6 .0 .0 .0 .0 24 .0 .0 .0 .0 0 8.3 .0 25.0 16.7 20.8 29.2 2,005 5.3 11.4 23.4 21.9 17.6 9.7 6.0 1.4 1.7 .5 243 .4

2.1 9.9 38.7 22.2 15.6 8.2 2.5 .4 .0 .0 68 4.4 14.7 7.4 11.8 16.2 22.1 16.2

.0 1.5 .0 75 2.7 4.0 9.3 40.0 21.3! 8.0 9.3. 5.3 .0 .0 .0 537 .9 4.5 11.9 21.6 27.6 19.4 8.41 2.6 1.3 1.3 .6 117

.9 2.61 11.1 11.1 15.4 10.3 9. 4 7.7 7.7 23.1 55 16.4 21.8 30.9 14.5 9.1 5.5 1.8

.0 .0 .0 1,211 1.2 3.8 11.0 24.2 23.2 15.9 10.7 6.3 1.81

1.5

.6 161 .6 3.7 7.5) 17.4 23.0 13.7 14.9 14.9 1.9 1.9 .6 35 .0 0 .0 2.9 0 5.7 2.9 17.1 2.9 25.7 42.9

.0 .2 .2 2.9 8.1 14.4 19.4 27.0 12.4 6.8 8.6 112 7.1 16.1 13.4 24.1 11.6 11.6 10.7 5. 4 .0 .0 .0 82 1.2 4.9 7.3 11.0 12.2 13.4 20.7 8.5 2.4 4.9 13.4

.9

5.9

.0

1.0

3.9

8.8 17.7 19.0 16.1 12.0 10.7

3.3 3.5

4.0

15, 038

673 1.809 13, 229

.0 .2 1.1

6
.9
4.3

2.5 8.6 14.4 14.4 14.1 15.8
2.6 8.5 12.9 15.6 14.0 17.6
9.7 19.0 19.8 16.2 11.8 9.7

6.1
6.5
2.8

9.8 13.7 8.2 13.0 2.9 2.8 8.9 12.6 11.4

It is evident from a comparison of the totals in the foregoing table that the native-born heads of families have a higher range of annual earnings than those of foreign birth. The greater proportion of the former earn yearly between $400 and $800, while the annual earnings of the greater number of the latter are between $300 and $600. Of the heads of families who were native-born of native father, or native Americans, 50.8 per cent earn between $500 and $800 per annum.

In the lower ranges of annual earnings the heads of families who were born abroad exhibit a much greater proportion than those of native birth, while in the higher ranges of annual earnings the situation is reversed. Only 2.8 per cent of the foreign-born heads of families, as compared with 13 per cent of the total native-born and 14 per cent of those of native birth and native father, have yearly earnings in excess of $1,000. On the other hand, only 8.5 per cent of the total native-born heads of families and 5.7 per cent of those of native birth and native father, as contrasted with 19.8 per cent of the total number of foreign birth, earn under $400 each year. The races of old immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe also have a higher range of annual earnings than have those of recent immigration from southern and eastern Europe. This fact is illustrated by the following comparison, in which the heads of families of foreign birth are grouped according to the principal classifications of earnings: TABLE 34.-Old and new immigration compared with respect to annual earnings of

male heads of families, by race.

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Old immigration:

Canadian, French.
Dutch..
English.
German
Irish..
Norwegian.
Scotch..
Swedish.

Welsh..
New immigration:

Armenian.
Brava.
Croatian..
Greek..
Hebrew.
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar..
Polish
Portuguese.
Ruthenian.
Slovak..
Slovenian.
Syrian..

15.9

3.7 10.5 13.3 10.3 11.0 18. 2

18. 2 22, 2 21.8 26.7 17.8 19.4 24.3 18.5 22.6 23.4 38.7 21.6 24.2 17.4 24.1

11.4 22.2 18.0 11.1 14.8 14.5 11.0 20.6 15. 6 17.6 15. 6 19.4 15.9 13.7 11.6

8.0

.0 8.8

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9.9 11.9 11.0

7.5 13.4

.0 10.2 13.8 5.9 4.4 6.4 6.0 2. 5 2.6 6.3 14.9 5.4

2. 2 2. 7

9 1.4 1.7 .6

OOOOOOOOINOO ANNUAL EARNINGS OF ALL MALE WAGE-EARNERS IN THE HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

The table which is submitted below shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the approximate annual earnings of all males in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over. Table 35.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Native-born of native father:

White...

Negro. Native-born of foreign

father, by race of
father:
Bohemian and Mo-

ravian...
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.
Croatian..
(uban.
Danish.
Dutch..
English.
Finnish.
Flemish..
French..
German.
Hebrew
Irish..
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Lithuanian..
Magyar..
Norwegian.
Polish..
Portuguese.
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Slovak
Slovenian.
Swedish.

Welsh..
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Mo-

- * --22-33 సీటంలాగా అక్క

196

a)
(a)
52. 4
66.7
54. 2
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
64.8
(a)
90.9
79. 2
88.5
(a)
53.8
73.5

7

186

(a)
(a)
(a)
33. 2
(a)
50.0
37.5
67. 2

11 22 24 61 11 119 34

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(a)

9

23. 5
41.2

182

454

23

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100.0

64.6 (a) 90.2 99. 1 62. 1 83.9 18.6

517
549 15

334
1 (a)

1 1
51 426 3

46
534
255 164

529 534
604
538 27

375 585
987
410 139

828 98.5
43
782

8 36 .0
15
674

5
150
555

94 148 .7
522
673 8

216 478 1.5
144
683
3

32 143
98
539
9

63 96 9. 2 170

5

133 169 2.9 1.038 579 51

032 1,030 4.6 823

219

794 821 26. 6 2 (a)

2

2

2 (a) 847 513 40

559 826 4.7 714 (36 19

357

2.7 874 480 39

6-3 807 4.5 2.678

396 279 1. 484 2,352 2,657 10.4 68 482

12 63 68 .0 a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

(a)

97.7 (a) 100.0 100.0 96.9 99.8 83.7 (a) 98.7 91.6 99.3 98.0 99.4 93.8 99.8 (a) 97.5 91.0 99. 2 99. 2 100.0

479

ravian..
Bosnian.
Brava..
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Croatian.
Cuban
Danish..
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
Flemish.
French..
German.
Greek
Gypsy
Hebrew.
Irish.
Italian, North,
Italian, South.
Japanese.

39.6

23.8
(a)
45. 1
90. 4
27.8
50.2

4.7
(a)
20.7
12.5

5.6 19. 4 27.1 24. 2 80. 6 (a) 33.3 16.1 39. 2 55. 4 17.6

62.7 41. 4 22. 2 61.3 78. 2 57.6 96.5 (a) 66.0 50.0 73.6 87.8 92.6

300

TABLE 35.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual-Continued.

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Upon comparing the totals of the nativity groups, it is seen that the annual average earnings of the 22,938 wage-earners of foreign birth in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over were only $455, as contrasted with average yearly earnings of $566 for the 2,059 industrial workers of native birth but of foreign father, and with $666 the average annual earnings for the 1,454 native-born white wage-earners of native father for whom information was received. Only a small percentage of the last-named group were earning under $400 annually, while the greater proportion were earning between $600 and $1,000 each year. On the other hand, the greater number of wage-earners in all the industries studied, either of native birth and of foreign father or of foreign birth, were receiving as a result of their labor less than $600 per annum.

It is a striking fact that of the total number of foreign-born wage-earners 77.9 per cent were receiving under $600 each year, and 43.5 per cent under $400. Only 1.9 per cent of the foreign-born earned more then $1,000 each year, as contrasted with 6.6 per cent of the native-born wageearners of foreign father, and 11.4 per cent of the native-born white persons of native father, or native Americans.

The differences in earning ability of the foreign-born wage-earners of past immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe and those of recent immigration from southern and eastern Europe are quickly apparent from the division shown on page 122, according to

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